PPt Raymond Dubois - History of Cancer - Braz Portuguese .PowerPoint Slides English Text Brazilian

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    PowerPoint Slides English Text Brazilian Portuguese Translation

    History of Cancer VideoTranscript

    Histria do Cncer Roteiro

    Professional Oncology Education History of Cancer Time: 21:28

    Educao Para Profissionais em Oncologia Histria do Cncer Durao: 21:28

    Raymond DuBois, M.D., Ph.D. Provost & Executive Vice President The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center

    Raymond DuBois, M.D., Ph.D. Superintendente e Vice-Presidente Executivo Universidade do Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center

    History of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of Cancer

    History of CancerHistory of Cancer

    Raymond N. DuBois, M.D., Ph.D.

    Provost & Executive Vice President

    Hello, I am Ray DuBois, the Provost and Executive Vice President here at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Today, I will be taking to you about the history of cancer, how it has developed over several 100 years, and what we know about that, and also the important role of research in our future and how we are going to develop new treatments and other aspects of cancer treatment and prevention.

    Ol, sou Ray DuBois, Superintendente e Vice-Presidente Executivo do MD Anderson Cancer Center, Universidade do Texas. Hoje, falarei sobre a histria do cncer, seu desenvolvimento em centenas de anos e o que sabemos sobre ele e, tambm, o papel importante da pesquisa em nosso futuro e como desenvolveremos novos tratamentos e outros aspectos do tratamento e preveno do cncer.

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    History of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of Cancer

    ObjectivesObjectivesObjectivesObjectives

    Upon completion of this lesson, participants will be able to:

    Appreciate the scope of cancer in the US population

    Understand how large investments in research may impact disease

    Appreciate trends in cancer prevention, diagnosis

    and treatment

    So, the objective of this discussion is going to lead to a better appreciation of a scope of the cancer problem in the U.S. population. Hopefully, we will understand how large investments in research may impact disease, and appreciate the trends that are occurring in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Portanto, o objetivo desta discusso conduzir a uma melhor compreenso da abrangncia do problema do cncer na populao norte-americana. Compreenderemos como investimentos de vulto em pesquisa podem afetar a doena e reconhecer as tendncias atuais em preveno, diagnstico e tratamento de cncer.

    History of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of Cancer

    Current Status of Cancer in the USCurrent Status of Cancer in the USCurrent Status of Cancer in the USCurrent Status of Cancer in the US

    Incidence of cancer

    Estimated 1.479 million new cases of cancer were diagnosed

    in 2009

    40% lifetime risk

    Overall decline of 1.1% during 1999-2006 period

    Declined primarily due to decrease in colon and breast

    cancer

    Incidence has leveled off for lung cancer in women

    Five year survival rate current 66.1% (1999-2005)

    Mortality rates

    21% lifetime risk; leading cause of death under the age of 85

    Decline in mortality rates of 1.6% during 2001-2006 period

    Mainly due to lung, breast and colon

    www.seer.cancer.gov

    Now, if we look at the incidence of cancer in the United States, we estimate almost 1.5 million new cases were diagnosed in 2009 and this amounts to about 40% lifetime risk. Overall, there has been a slight decline of about 1.1% during the period from 1999 to 2006 and this was due primarily to a decrease in colon and breast cancer incidence and mortality, but this has leveled off in women to a certain extent. The five-year survival rate is 66% over 1999 to 2005. In the mortality rates, there is a 21% lifetime risk. It is a leading cause of death from cancer under the age of 85, and there is a decline in mortality. It has been slight, but consistent, especially in lung, breast, and colon.

    Agora, se examinarmos a incidncia de cncer nos Estados Unidos, estimamos que cerca de 1,5 milho de novos casos foram diagnosticados em 2009, o que equivale a cerca de 40% de risco para adquirir a doena durante a vida da pessoa (lifetime risk). Em geral, houve uma pequena queda de cerca de 1,1% no perodo de 1999 a 2006 e isto se deve, principalmente, a uma diminuio na incidncia e mortalidade de cncer de clon e de mama, mas at um certo ponto estabilizou-se em mulheres. A taxa de sobrevida em cinco anos de 66% de 1999 a 2005. Nas taxas de mortalidade, h um lifetime risk de 21%. a causa principal de bitos de cncer abaixo de 85 anos de idade e h uma queda na mortalidade. Ela foi leve, mas uniforme, principalmente no pulmo, mama e clon.

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    History of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of Cancer

    70-80 million years ago -- evidence of cancer exists in dinosaur fossils

    3000 BC -- evidence of cancer exists in mummies

    400 BC -- the Greek physician Hippocrates was the first to recognize the difference between benign and malignant tumors

    50 AD -- Romans found that some tumors could be removed by surgery, which would turn out to be the mainstay of

    treatment for the next several hundred years

    1939-45 -- during World War II the US Army discovered that nitrogen mustard was effective in treating lymphoma, which

    ushered in the era of chemotherapy

    In thinking about the history of cancer, its --- we often get questions about, has cancer been a disease that has existed for a longtime or is it something relatively recent that has developed? It turns out that there is evidence in fossils of dinosaurs of bone cancers that appeared 70 to 80 million years ago. So cancer has been around for a long time. And then from 3000 B.C., there is evidence of cancer in mummies that were found in tombs in Egypt, and so clearly it did affect human population that was there. Around 400 B.C., we know the Greek physician, Hippocrates, was really the first physician to recognize the difference between benign and malignant tumors. And then at about 50 A.D., the Romans really first found that some of these tumors could be removed by surgery and that really turned out to be the mainstay of our treatment for the next several 100 years. It was not really until the beginning of World War II, and this was from research that was conducted by the US Army and the military, they discovered that nitrogen mustard was effective in treating some patients with lymphoma. And this really ushered in the concept of chemotherapy and the whole idea that we could use chemotherapy to treat cancer.

    Ao pensarmos na histria do cncer --- frequentemente, nos perguntam se o cncer uma doena que existe h muito tempo ou que se desenvolveu recentemente. H evidncias de cncer sseo em fsseis de dinossauros de 70 a 80 milhes de anos. Portanto, o cncer existe h muito tempo. E depois, em 3000 a.C., h evidncia de cncer em mmias encontradas em tumbas no Egito; claramente, a doena afetou a populao humana que habitava a regio. Por volta de 400 a.C., sabemos que Hipcrates, mdico grego, foi na verdade o primeiro mdico a reconhecer a diferena entre tumores benignos e malignos. E depois, por volta de 50 d.C., os romanos realmente descobriram que alguns destes tumores podiam ser removidos com cirurgia; isto passou a ser a base do tratamento nos sculos seguintes. Apenas aps o incio da 2 Guerra Mundial, e com pesquisa pelo Exrcito e as Foras Armadas dos Estados Unidos, descobriu-se que a mostarda nitrogenada era eficaz para o tratamento de alguns pacientes portadores de linfoma. Na verdade, isto foi o fato introdutor do conceito de quimioterapia e toda a ideia de que seria possvel usar quimioterapia para o tratamento de cncer.

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    History of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of CancerHistory of Cancer

    Examples of Progress in the 20Examples of Progress in the 20Examples of Progress in the 20Examples of Progress in the 20thththth CenturyCenturyCenturyCentury

    Heart DiseaseHeart DiseaseHeart DiseaseHeart Disease

    500

    400

    300

    200

    100

    50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00

    De

    ath

    s p

    er

    10

    0,0

    00

    Year

    ~ 514,000 Actual Deaths in 2000

    ~ 1,329,000 Projected Deaths

    in 2000

    An investment in research prevented 815,000 deaths due to coronary heart disease!!

    Zerhouni, NIH 2006

    One of the lessons that weve have learned from cardiovascular disease is that a real investment in research can lead to an impact on outcomes and improvement in life expectancy. In this slide, we are looking at the deaths per 100,000 as a --- on the Y-axis plotted against the year of the incidence of disease. So, for several years from 1950 until 1970, this was pretty consistent in terms of the projected deaths. And then due to some breakthroughs in biomedical research, we discovered that cholesterol --- the level of cholesterol in the blood, certain lifestyle, and behavioral activities were important in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease, and several medicines were discovered that you can take to lower your levels of cholesterol and other aspects that increase risk for heart disease. This led to a dramatic decrease in the number of deaths from this disease. Up until, here is 2000, but it still continued to decline. And because of this research that led to this better understanding of cardiovascular disease, you can see that we have saved over half a million people from dying from cardiovascular disease. I think this same kind of goal is achievable in cancer. Cancer is a much more complex disease than cardiovascular disease. There are many different aspects of the genetics and molecular defects that occur to cause cancer, so I think it is going to