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  • APRESENTAÇÃOEste módulo faz parte da coleção intitulada MATERIAL MODULAR, destinada às três séries do Ensino Médio e produzida para atender às necessidades das diferentes rea-lidades brasileiras. Por meio dessa coleção, o professor pode escolher a sequência que melhor se encaixa à organização curricular de sua escola.

    A metodologia de trabalho dos Modulares auxilia os alunos na construção de argumen-tações; possibilita o diálogo com outras áreas de conhecimento; desenvolve as capaci-dades de raciocínio, de resolução de problemas e de comunicação, bem como o espírito crítico e a criatividade. Trabalha, também, com diferentes gêneros textuais (poemas, histórias em quadrinhos, obras de arte, gráficos, tabelas, reportagens, etc.), a fim de dinamizar o processo educativo, assim como aborda temas contemporâneos com o ob-jetivo de subsidiar e ampliar a compreensão dos assuntos mais debatidos na atualidade.

    As atividades propostas priorizam a análise, a avaliação e o posicionamento perante situações sistematizadas, assim como aplicam conhecimentos relativos aos conteúdos privilegiados nas unidades de trabalho. Além disso, é apresentada uma diversidade de questões relacionadas ao ENEM e aos vestibulares das principais universidades de cada região brasileira.

    Desejamos a você, aluno, com a utilização deste material, a aquisição de autonomia inte-lectual e a você, professor, sucesso nas escolhas pedagógicas para possibilitar o aprofun-damento do conhecimento de forma prazerosa e eficaz.

    Gerente Editorial

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and

    causative verbs; standardized testing

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    @ING396Some unusual sports from around the [email protected]

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    Ruben FormighieriEmerson Walter dos SantosJoseph Razouk JuniorMaria Elenice Costa DantasCláudio Espósito GodoyAlexandre Batista / Joseandra D. GrazziottinAngela M. H. WaleskoFernanda Macêdo de Oliveira LimaMaria Helena Benedet / Miriam Raquel Moro ConfortoAlessandra Cavalli EstecheTatiane Esmanhotto KaminskiElcio B. de OliveiraAngela Giseli de Souza Deko / Quadrinhofilia Produções Artísticas / Marcos Gomes / Marcos GuilhermeO2 ComunicaçãoBettina Toedter Pospissil© Thinkstock/Getty Images; © Photos.com/Getty Images; © Shutterstock/Microstock Man; © Shutterstock/Odelia Cohen; © Shutterstock/Poscreate; © Shutterstock/haveseen; © Dreamstime.com/TeekaygeEditora Positivo Ltda.Rua Major Heitor Guimarães, 17480440-120 Curitiba – PRTel.: (0xx41) 3312-3500 Fax: (0xx41) 3312-3599Gráfica Posigraf S.A.Rua Senador Accioly Filho, 50081300-000 Curitiba – PRFax: (0xx41) 3212-5452E-mail: [email protected]@positivo.com.br

    @

    Dados Internacionais para Catalogação na Publicação (CIP)(Maria Teresa A. Gonzati / CRB 9-1584 / Curitiba, PR, Brasil)

    B333 Batista, Alexandre.Ensino médio : modular : língua inglesa : reading comprehension : phrasal verbs,

    passive voice, stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs, standardized testing / Alexandre Batista, Joseandra D. Grazziottin ; ilustrações Deko ... [ et al. ]. – Curitiba : Positivo, 2013.

    : il.

    ISBN 978-85-385-7525-2 (livro do aluno)ISBN 978-85-385-7526-9 (livro do professor)

    1. Língua inglesa. Ensino médio – Currículos. I. Grazziottin, Joseandra D. II. Deko. III. Título.

    CDU 373.33

  • SUMÁRIO

    Unidade 1: Public speaking: facing the challenge and overcoming the fear

    Unidade 2: Entertain me!

    Unidade 3: Unicef – supported initiatives in Brazil

    Unidade 4: A picture is worth a thousand words

    Unidade 5: Standardized testing

    Phrasal verbs 10

    The passive voice 12

    Overview of the English verb system (time and tense) 26

    Stative and dynamic verbs 36

    Sensory and causative verbs 47

  • Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing4

    Public speaking: facing the challenge and overcoming the fear

    1

    “The human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public.”

    George Jessel

    Disponível em: . Acesso em: 3 set. 2011.

    “The human brain sta

    1

  • Ensino Médio | Modular 5

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    What are people afraid of?

    1. Look at the pictures and guess what kind of fears these people are experiencing. Number the fears according to their pictures.

    2

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    ( 8 ) fear of heights (12) fear of the dark( 9 ) fear of dentists ( 4 ) fear of spiders( 7 ) fear of public speaking ( 1 ) fear of being alone( 6 ) fear of failure (10) fear of flying( 2 ) fear of rejection ( 5 ) fear of death( 3 ) fear of snakes (11) fear of lightning

  • 2. Choose 11 fears from exercise 1 and rank them on a scale from 1 to 11, 1 being the least terrifying and 11 being the most terrifying.

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    The fear of public speaking has been ranked as the number 1 fear on the lists of some surveys. A lot of artists, actors, actresses, presidents and other famous and important people get nervous in front of an audience. What about you? How do you feel if you need to give a speech in front of a lot of people or in front of your classmates? ( ) afraid ( ) comfortable ( ) terrified ( ) good ( ) nervous ( ) anxious

    If you are one of those who are afraid of speaking in front of a public audience, you are not alone. But, what can you do about this fear? How can you overcome it? Exchange ideas with a classmate. Then, read the text and underline the items you have talked about.

    1. Getting ready 3

    2. While reading 4

    What can you do about your fear?There are several things you can do to help bolster your

    confidence when you have to give a presentation before a group of people:

    Find out who your audience is so you can tailor the material to them.

    Use a short introduction to break the ice such as, “Hi, everybody. I’m glad you could make it today.” You could use a joke, just be careful not to offend your audience.

    Carefully prepare your speech and make sure you really know the material well.

    Practice your speech until you can give it without notes.

    Prepare slides or notes as a backup just in case you do forget what you want to say.

    Video tape your presentation so you will be able to correct anything you don’t like such as hand gesture, posture, etc.

    Finally, do a dress rehearsal in front of a friendly audience.On the day of the presentation, arrive early and mingle

    with the audience. If you get to know a couple of them, you should be able to relax a little.

    Giving presentations is part of most professional jobs. Learn to speak in front of groups while you are still in school and the worst that can happen is that you won’t get an “A”. Don’t let the fear of public speaking limit your career opportunities.

    SCHOOLWORK. Are you afraid of public speaking? Disponível em: . Acesso em: 4 set. 2011.

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    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing6

  • 3. Getting the message A. Choose the correct alternative according to the text.

    ( ) There is nothing you can do to improve your presentations.( ) A long introduction would be more agreeable than a short one.( x ) Practicing your speech many times makes you feel more confident.( ) Video tape your presentation and show it to the audience.( ) Overcoming the fear of public speaking limits your career opportunities.

    B. Answer the questions according to the text.a) When we are going to speak in front of a group, what do we need to know well?

    b) Why is it a good idea to video tape the presentation?

    c) What can fear of public speaking do to your professional life?

    d) Write two items presented in the text which are important to you or would make you feel better.

    The material; what we are going to say.

    To correct anything we don’t like, such as, posture, hand gesture, etc.

    It can limit our career opportunities.

    Pessoal.

    5

    1. Find six words or expressions in the wordhunt. Then, write the words next to their definitions.

    a) To move around and have contact with a lot of people. Mingle. b) Notes that can be used when extra help is needed. Backup. c) To make or change something especially for a particular person or purpose. Tailor. d) To make something stronger or more effective. Bolster. e) To do or say something that makes people feel less shy or nervous in a social situation. Break the ice. f) The last complete presentation before the public sees it, making sure every detail meets expectations.

    Dress rehearsal.

    A V B E L S E M O N G L E SO N R O A D D I A R Y E R AW E E N L O R N G E T A W YL W A D I S E G A P A O P ML A K T A N T L P E I L U IA R T A R T P E O P L E K NO P H O U R O U R L O A C PD R E S S R E H E A R S A LA U I Z E B R A S N A P B ET A C E A N D S T E L A R IE D E Z W I U Y A S F K I A

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    Ensino Médio | Modular 7

  • 2. Complete the text with the words from exercise 1.

    When I have to give a speech, I like to break the ice telling a funny short story related to the topic. Before starting my speech, I like to mingle with some people in the audience. Sometimes I need to tailor my speech, depending on the group I am going to speak to. I always ask my family to listen to my speech one day before the presentation. I do this dress rehearsal in order to feel more confident. Moreover, I prepare some notes as a backup . They help me remember what I have to say. Well, these are the things I do to bolster my confidence when I have to speak in public. What do you do to feel more confident in front of an audience?

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    1. You are going to read some comments about public speaking. Tell a classmate which one you agree with. After that, write what you feel when you have to give a speech. 6

    FORUM

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    I love it. I always print out a page of jokes and read them before I speak. It is the best way to calm my nerves before I speak. Or I just think of something funny.

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    Sarah

    I don't like speaking in public but what has always helped me is finding a spot in the room above their heads and focusing on it. When I’m nervous, I feel as if I have butterflies in my stomach. I also tend to speed, so I always remind myself to slow down.

    I’m pretty good at public speaking (got an A last semester in the class). My secret is I try not to focus on the number of people I’m speaking to.

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    I hate it. When I feel under pressure and nervous, I sweat, my heart starts beating fast and my hands tremble which only makes me feel worse. I shake like a leaf.

    Carlos

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing8

  • In pairs, discuss what people can do about their fears. Do they have to face them? Can people use the fear of public speaking as a tool to make them improve their speech? How could they do that?

    You are going to listen to an article about some fears. First, read and answer the question below. When you listen, find out if your answer is correct.

    What is glossophobia?a) It’s fear of death. b) It’s fear of flying. X c) It's fear of speaking in public.d) It’s fear of spiders and snakes. e) It’s fear of heights.

    1. Getting ready 8

    2. While listening 9

    2. Here are some expressions used to show how a person feels when speaking to an audience. Match each picture to its meaning.

    ( c ) My hands tremble.

    ( d ) My knees shake.

    ( h ) You have panicky thoughts.

    ( g ) You experience a “fainting” feeling.

    ( f ) Your heart beats faster than normal.

    ( a ) I have butterflies in my stomach.

    ( b ) I shake like a leaf.

    ( e ) You feel as if your legs are about to give out on you.

    3. Getting the message 10

    A. According to what you have just listened to, which number does public speaking stand at in the ranking of fears?

    B. Listen again and check the correct alternatives according to the audio.1. Stage fright is known as...X a) the fear of public speaking. b) the fear of being alone.X c) glossophobia. d) the fear of death.

    It stands at number 5.

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    Ensino Médio | Modular 9

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • 2. When the author talks about the audience, he means...a) that nobody in the audience wants us to be successful.

    X b) that everybody in the audience wants us to succeed.c) that the audience wants to have success.d) that we want the audience to succeed.

    3. We can infer that the message of the author’s article is...a) negative. b) scary.c) indifferent. X d) positive.

    C. Read the statements below and check the correct ones.( ) People know why they are afraid of public speaking.( X ) Glossophobia is also known as stage fright.( X ) Some people would rather die than speak in public.( ) We can’t consider the fear as a tool to improve our speeches.( ) Everybody can overcome the fear of public speaking. All they need is to follow some simple

    steps.

    A. Leia as sentenças e, depois, responda à pergunta: 1. Looking at language 11

    Phrasal verbs

    a) I will cancel my speech. I’m not feeling well.b) I can’t tolerate people who talk during a

    lecture.c) If you exercise on a daily basis, you won’t feel

    ashamed to wear a bathing suit at the beach.

    a) I will call off my speech. I’m not feeling well.b) I won’t put up with people who talk during a

    lecture.c) If you work out on a daily basis, you won’t

    feel ashamed to wear a bathing suit.

    De acordo com as sentenças acima, qual é a melhor definição de phrasal verb?

    a) Phrasal verb é a combinação entre um verbo e uma partícula (preposição ou advérbio) que, juntos, sempre adquirem um significado semelhante ao significado original do verbo.

    X b) Phrasal verb é a combinação entre um verbo e uma partícula (preposição ou advérbio) que, juntos, adquirem um significado especial (call off = cancel/put up with = tolerate/work out = exercise).

    Ao se estudar phrasal verbs, faz-se necessário entender as noções de verbo transitivo e intransitivo. Um verbo transitivo é um verbo que acompanha um objeto direto ou indireto. Por exemplo, em I ate a banana this morning, eat é um verbo transitivo, pois quem come, come algo. Portanto, a banana é o objeto direto (não preposicionado) de eat. Por outro lado, um verbo intransitivo não precisa de complemento. Por exemplo, em I work every day, work é intransitivo, pois não requer a presença de um objeto direto ou indireto.

    B. Baseado na explicação acima, volte aos exemplos com phrasal verbs nesta seção e responda às perguntas a seguir.a) Que verbos são transitivos? Call off e put up with.

    b) Que verbo é intransitivo? Work out.

    Importance of learning and using phrasal verbs in [email protected]

    @

    10 Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing

  • Há, na tabela abaixo, alguns exemplos de phrasal verbs (transitivos ou intransitivos):

    Os verbos transitivos podem ser classificados em dois grupos: aqueles que são separáveis e aqueles que não são separáveis.

    Separable Non-separablePut on your new clothes to go to the presentation. I’m looking at Pedro. His hands are shaking.Put your new clothes on to go to the presentation.

    Quando a phrasal verb transitiva e separável tiver o seu objeto substituído por um pronome objeto (me, you, it, him, her, us, them), a única posição aceitável é entre o verbo e a partícula.

    Veja os exemplos abaixo:

    I will call it off. I’m not feeling well.Put them on to go to the presentation.

    C. Read the sentences and find out the meanings of the phrasal verbs. 12

    a) I’m looking for my notes. Do you know where they are?b) First, write your speech down. Then read it and practice a lot.c) Get up! It’s 9 o´clock! You are late for your public speaking course!d) You need to keep on. Practice and practice your speech.e) Please, turn on the TV. I want to watch a talk show.f) I need to prepare my presentation. Turn the CD player off, please.g) You have to fill in this application form if you want to take the course.h) Don’t throw this material away. I need it for my presentation. i) Let’s get off the bus and take a taxi. We are going to be late for the presentation.j) I have to put the speech off. I will present it next month.k) He has to give the books back to the library.

    ( d ) to continue( g ) to complete( i ) to leave a train/bus/plane( b ) to record in writing in order to remember( j ) to postpone or delay something( h ) to get rid of something you no longer want( f ) to stop the flow of (liquid, gas, electricity)( a ) to try to find( e ) to start the flow of (liquid, gas, electricity)( c ) to rise from bed( k ) to return 13

    Transitivos Intransitivosblow up (explode) come back (return)

    call up (telephone) grow up (become and adult)

    put off (postpone) shut up (stop talking)

    get in (enter a car, a taxi) sit down (to move from a standing position to a sitting position)

    listen to (to pay attention to a sound) stand up (to be on your feet)

    look for (search for somebody or something) look out (be careful)

    work out (exercise)

    Ensino Médio | Modular 11

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • A. Leia as sentenças a seguir. 14

    1. Looking at language

    The passive voice

    1. Jack Valenti teaches how to speak in public.2. How to speak in public is taught by Jack Valenti.

    3. The famous reporter gave a speech last night.4. A speech was given by the famous reporter last night.

    5. The author is going to answer the questions.6. The questions are going to be answered by the author.

    Considerando os verbos dessas sentenças, responda:a) Que diferenças há entre as sentenças 1, 3 e 5 e as sentenças 2, 4 e 6?

    b) Quais sentenças estão na voz ativa e quais estão na voz passiva?

    Na sentença: Jack Valenti teaches how to speak in public., o objeto da sentença na voz ativa (how to speak in public) passa a ser o sujeito da voz passiva. O sujeito da sentença na voz ativa (Jack Valenti) corresponde ao objeto da preposição (by) da sentença na voz passiva e é chamado de agente da passiva.

    No exemplo 1, o verbo está conjugado no presente simples. No exemplo 3, o verbo está conjugado no

    passado e, no exemplo 5, no futuro com going to. Nos exemplos 2, 4 e 6, há sempre o verbo to be e o verbo

    principal no particípio passado (taught, given e answered).

    A voz passiva é formada pelo: Verb to be + past participle of the main verb (+ by ...)

    As sentenças 1, 3 e 5 estão na voz ativa. As sentenças 2, 4 e 6 estão na voz passiva.

    Active voice Jack Valenti teaches how to speak in public.

    Passive voice How to speak in public is taught by Jack Valenti.

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing12

  • Public speaking is taught in the classroom by teachers.Public speaking is taught in the classroom.

    By teachers foi retirado, pois sabemos quem ensina pelo contexto.

    My slides were taken by someone during the break.My slides were taken during the break.

    By someone foi retirado, pois não se sabe quem pegou os slides.

    Was the speech given by the famous reporter last night?Has the book been mailed by Joana?Will the presentation be given by the author tomorrow evening?

    The speech was not (wasn’t) given by the famous reporter last night.The book has not (hasn’t) been mailed by Joana.The presentation will not (won’t) be given by the author tomorrow evening.

    Voz ativa – We gave Joaquim a present.Voz passiva – Joaquim was given a present.Voz ativa – My sister asked me to send a postcard.Voz passiva – I was asked to send a postcard (by my sister).

    Leia no quadro a seguir a sentença apresentada em diferentes tempos verbais na voz ativa e passiva:

    Observação: O agente da passiva nem sempre aparece nas frases. Ele é omitido quando está claro no contexto ou quando não é conhecido. Veja o exemplo: 15

    Se a voz ativa tiver dois objetos, um direto e um indireto, o mais comum é que o objeto indireto se transforme em sujeito ao formarmos a voz passiva. Leia os exemplos a seguir:

    Na forma interrogativa, é mudando a posição do verbo to be (is, am, are / was, were); do verbo have (has/had), ou do verbo modal will com o sujeito da frase.

    Exemplos:

    Na forma negativa acrescenta-se not após o verbo to be (am, are, is / was, were); o verbo have (has/had), ou o verbo modal will.

    Exemplos:

    TEMPO VERBAL VOZ ATIVA VOZ PASSIVAPresent Simple Tom gives a speech. The speech is given by Tom.

    Past Simple Tom gave a speech yesterday. The speech was given by Tom yesterday.

    Present Perfect Tom has given a speech The speech has been given by Tom.

    Past Perfect Tom had given a speech. The speech had been given by Tom.

    Will (future) Tom will give a speech. The speech will be given by Tom.

    Going to (future) Tom is going to give a speech. The speech is going to be given by Tom.

    16

    Ensino Médio | Modular 13

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • A. In each sentence, replace the words in italics with a phrasal verb from the box that has the same meaning.

    2. Practical activities 17

    keep on fill in put off get off look for

    a) Try to find my notes, please. I have to practice. look for

    b) You need to continue practicing. keep on

    c) We need to complete this form with your personal information. fill in

    d) It’s time to leave the train and take the subway. get off

    e) The debates were postponed. Prepare them for next week, please. put off B. Look at the pictures and number from 1 to 5 the correct parts from A and B to describe them.

    After that, write the phrasal verbs next to or below the picture they refer to.

    A B

    ( 1 ) write ( 4 ) away

    ( 2 ) get ( 1 ) down

    ( 3 ) give ( 3 ) back

    ( 4 ) throw ( 5 ) on

    ( 5 ) turn ( 2 ) up

    18 C. Write A if the sentence is in the active voice and P if the sentence is in the passive voice.

    a) Dan is going to present his speech next week. ( A ) b) I am going to be invited by John. ( P ) c) We have to practice our speech a lot. ( A ) d) Photos of the performance were taken by the photographers. ( P ) e) The president has been asked a lot of questions. ( P ) f) The students have asked a lot of questions. ( A )

    Este ícone indica que há respostas e/ou comentários nas Orientações Metodológicas.

    b) get up

    a) write down

    c) turn on

    d) give back e) throw away

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    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing14

  • D. Write the sentences below in the passive voice.Ex.: Margaret Ryan wrote the book How to give a Speech.The book How to give a Speech was written by Margaret Ryan.

    a) Stage fright affects even the most remarkable professionals.

    b) Experience in public speaking can build confidence.

    c) Your family will help you.

    d) Somebody sent me a wonderful card.

    e) They must do the job.

    E. Now, answer the questions about you. Give complete answers. When you were a child...a) ...were you allowed to watch as much TV as you liked?

    b) ...what time were you sent to bed?

    c) ...were you given a lot of toys?

    d) ...when were you allowed to play with your friends?

    Even the most remarkable professionals are affected by stage fright.

    You will be helped by your family.

    I was sent a wonderful card.

    The job must be done.

    Yes, I was allowed to watch as much TV as I liked. No, I wasn’t allowed to watch as much TV as I liked.

    Pessoal. I was sent to bed at 9 o‘clock.

    Yes, I was given a lot of toys. / No, I wasn’t given many toys.

    I was allowed to play with my friends in the morning/in the afternoon/ in the evening/every day.

    19

    A lot of famous and important people, such as artists, actors, actresses and presidents, get nervous when they have to talk in front of a group.

    Read what Reese Witherspoon, a famous actress, said on the Academy Award show in 2006. Talk about public speaking with a classmate and try to find some reasons why people have this fear.

    Confidence can be built by experience in public speaking.

    20

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    “I was sitting there hoping they wouldn’t call my name – because the idea of having to give a speech in front of everyone in the world is terrifying.” – Reese Witherspoon, on her anxiety before winning the 2006 Oscar for Best Actress for Walk the Line.

    IDEALCOMMUNICATOR. Even celebrities get the public speaking blues. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 set. 2011.

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    Ensino Médio | Modular 15

  • First, look at the graph and see what Americans are afraid of.

    21

    Everybody has fears about different things. But some are more afraid of certain things than others. I am going to read a list of some of these fears. For each one, please tell me whether you are afraid of it, or not. How about...[Random order]?

    + – 3% Margin of Error

    February 19-21, 2001Sample Size = 1, 016

    BREWER, Geoffrey. Snakes top list of Americans fears. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 3 set. 2011.

    Now ask 10 people, your classmates, your teachers and people at home, the following questions. Bring the answers to class and, with your classmates, create a graph with the results. Compare the two graphs.

    1. What are you afraid of?

    2. Are you afraid of public speaking?( ) Yes. ( ) No.

    3. What is your worst fear when you are speaking in front of an audience?( ) Fear of failure.( ) Fear of making mistakes.( ) People will see how nervous I am.( ) People will laugh at me.( ) I will freeze up.( ) Write your own idea: _________________________

    4. What do you do to overcome this fear? ( ) I prepare the material very well.( ) I prepare slides and notes as backups to help me.( ) I ease tension by stretching or exercising before the presentation.( ) I visualize myself speaking and being successful. ( ) I focus my attention away from my own anxieties.( ) Any other idea? ____________________________

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing16

  • What do you think about this career? Would you like to become a public speaker? 22

    2. Now, read a paragraph about becoming a professional in public speaking. Then, answer the questions below.

    Career in Public Speaking

    [...]A person can certainly become a public speaker, if he is a good communicator and can

    get in touch with the public in an efficient manner. People can also choose public speaking careers by becoming a professional author. A career in public speaking does not only include speaking out to the public, it also includes publications by writers, who have a deep knowledge in an area of expertise, which they use for sharing their understandings to the public. Speech writing, is also a part of public speaking, wherein the writer needs to draft a speech that is to be presented by the speaker to the audience. This job requires a proficiency in drafting speeches as well as good verbal communication skills.

    A public speaking career can be the best option for anyone who loves to communicate and interact with people. [...]

    RAMPUR, Stephen. Career in public speaking. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 29 set. 2011.

    1. Read the two texts below and answer:a) What is the genre of the texts?

    b) What are the texts offering?

    c) What are the people’s names in the texts?

    Advertisement/advertising.

    Speakers/professional speakers.

    I. Harper Collins. II. There isn’t a person’s name.

    I.

    Disponível em: . Acesso em: 29 set. 2011.

    NSB can help you select the best speaker for your event!

    National Speakers Bureau is Canada’s original speakers agency with over 35 years of service to event and meeting planners across the country. With offices in Toronto and Vancouver, there is no other bureau with as much experience and long-standing relationships with speakers and sponsor clients. This means better speakers and program advice for you.NSB.com.NSB can help you select the best speaker for your event. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 24 set. 2011.

    II.

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    Ensino Médio | Modular 17

  • 3. Leia a história em quadrinhos acima e assinale a alternativa que indica o texto que pode corretamente preencher o balão do primeiro quadro:

    a) Have you ever told something you wish you hadn’t told, and it was too late to take it back?

    X b) Have you ever said something you wish you hadn’t said, and it was too late to take it back?

    c) Should I tell something I wish I shouldn’t have told, and it was too late to take it back?

    d) Have you ever said something I have never listened?

    e) How long have you been telling a story here?

    4. A palavra should, presente no segundo quadro, é:

    a) verbo frasal. b) verbo no presente.

    X c) verbo modal. d) verbo regular.

    e) verbo no presente simples.

    (UEG – GO) O texto a seguir se refere às questões 1 e 2.

    Disponível em: .

    1. Considerando a fala da personagem masculina, pode-se afirmar:

    X a) He comments about how long it is taking him to buy some coffee.

    b) He confirms the information about the bad effect of caffeine for health.

    c) He doubts that drinking coffee can reduce a person’s life expectancy.

    d) He is interested in the news the woman is reporting to him.

    2. Observando os aspectos linguísticos na fala da personagem feminina, pode-se afirmar que:

    a) Can expressa uma ideia de possibilidade remota. b) So é usado para introduzir uma opinião pessoal. c) Take... off pode ser substituído por “take... out”.

    X d) Your pode ser substituído por “a person’s”.

    Disponível em: .

    (UNITAU – SP) – O texto a seguir se refere às questões 3 e 4.

    (UFMS) – O texto a seguir se refere à questão 5.Para responder à próxima questão, observe a tira a seguir:

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing18

  • 5. Baseado no conteúdo da tira da página anterior [...] é correto afirmar:

    (01) Calvin estava irritado com sua mãe.

    (02) A mãe de Calvin não queria falar com ele.

    X (04) Calvin sujou o chão da sala.

    (08) Calvin perguntou ao pai se poderia brincar com o cachorro.

    (16) O pai de Calvin ficou irritado com a gritaria.

    (UNCISAL) O texto a seguir refere-se às questões 6 e 7.

    (http://comics.com/home_and_away/2009-11-05.

    Adaptado)

    6. A lacuna no segundo quadrinho – He’s in the restroom. Truth is, he is very anxious_____ this conference – é corretamente preenchida com:

    a) of X b) about

    c) from d) above

    e) around

    7. A contração verbal destacada em – He thought you’d be judging him. [...] – corresponde a:

    X a) would.

    b) could.

    c) had.

    d) did.

    e) should.

    (MACKENZIE – SP) The following text refers to questions 8 and 9.

    What’s up? Conceptual metaphors and the teaching of phrasal verbs

    By Elaine Hodgson Some aspects of a language are considered a real

    challenge for both teachers and learners. In the case of English, phrasal verbs are certainly amongst the most unpopular topics in the classroom. They are seen as important and, at the same time, almost impossible to be learnt. This probably happens because their meanings are often thought to be arbitrary and sometimes illogical. Being considered arbitrary, it is believed that these verbs cannot exactly be taught, but that they should, most of the time, be learnt by heart. Only the very gifted student or someone who has had the chance of living abroad for some time would be able to use them confidently. For the regular EFL student, understandably, this can be extremely off-putting, as one cannot be expected to memorize thousands and thousands of different verbs, especially if we consider that new phrasal verbs are created every day! Would it be possible to facilitate the path to the learning of phrasal verbs, which are an important aspect of the English language? The answer, I believe, is yes, even though it may seem very unusual at first: conceptual metaphors. The teaching of a few conceptual metaphors would probably help students (and teachers) deal with phrasal verbs in a more efficient manner.

    (New Routes)

    8. According to the text, phrasal verbs: a) can only be memorized by native speakers. b) are conceptual metaphors which can make

    our thoughts less arbitrary and, therefore, able to be put into practice.

    c) can be learned only by the ones who are really off-putting and popular among the crowds.

    X d) would definitely not be chosen as a student’s favorite subject to discuss in class.

    e) are exclusively taught to EFL students who do not seem to be gifted ones.

    9. When you learn something by heart: a) you open your heart to new ideas.X b) you learn it so well that you can repeat it. c) deep in your heart you know you have a

    chance to learn it. d) you can outline the information you acquired

    in your studies.Ensino Médio | Modular 19

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing20

    24Entertainment, according to the definition on the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, is:

    [...]3 a: amusement or diversion provided especially by performers b: something diverting or engaging: as (1) : a public performance (2) : a usually light comic or

    adventure novel

    ENTERTAINMENT. In: MERRIAM-webster. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 9 nov. 2012.

    television concertsmusic/listening to music

    a b c

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    1. There are a lot of different forms of entertainment. Look at the pictures of some forms of entertainment and write their names.

    Entertain me!223

    “Then come jesters, musicians and trained dwarfs, and singing girls from the land of Ti-ti, to delight the ear and eye and bring mirth to the mind.”

    – Sima Xiangru (ca. 179-117 B.C.), Rhapsody on the Shanglin ParkOTTO, Beatrice. Fools are everywhere: the court jestes around the world. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 11 dez. 2011.

  • Ensino Médio | Modular 21

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    2. There are more examples of entertainment, such as animation comedy, comics, dance, games, among others. What is your favorite form of entertainment?

    Pessoal.

    cinema

    opera

    theater

    modern dance

    night club

    circus

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  • 1. Getting ready

    A. Look at the pictures. Have you seen them before? What are they related to?

    Cirque du Soleil.

    B. Match the pictures with their descriptions.

    ( e ) Deep within a forest, at the summit of a volcano, there is an extraordinary world – a world where something else is possible.

    ( d ) A young girl’s escape into a world of imagination.( c ) A spectacular tale that defies the laws of gravity.( b ) An aquatic masterpiece of surrealism and theatrical romance.( a ) A high-energy Cirque du Soleil classic.

    2. While reading

    In the text, the writer compares the Cirque du Soleil with two other forms of entertainment. Read the text and find what they are.

    He compares it with a show and a circus: Like a Broadway show, Kà has a plot. Like a circus, Kà showcases

    jaw-dropping acrobatic feats.

    Summit: cumeDefy: desafiar

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    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing22

  • The big battle is about to begin – good guys on one side, bad guys on the other. They advance and clash, executing kung-furious feats of acrobatic derring – do. It’s like a Hong Kong action film, but every take has to be perfect. It’s being done live, in a theater at Las Vegas’ MGM Grand, so any misstep could injure a performer and kill the flow of the drama. Moreover, the battlefield is a large platform that has been tilted 80°, a nearly vertical position. That gives the audience a unique, God’s-eye view of the action, but it’s hell for the performers, who must fight to keep their balance – or off they plunge into the void.

    Kà, the Cirque du Soleil show that opened last week, is the latest, largest demonstration that the Quebec company – which began as a circus with no animals – has become the gold standard for live entertainment. Like

    a circus, Kà showcases jaw-dropping acrobatic feats, but it cradles them in outsize theatrical wizardry: a huge stage space with many scene changes and a theater designed to suit the show, with side balconies from which the performers can fly over the audience. Like a Broadway show, Kà has a plot, a dozen or more characters and a sonorous score. It blends these two forms and extends them with the company’s determination to create something new under the Las Vegas sun – a spectacle of burly martial arts contained in a tender love story.

    The battlefield climax to Kà is merely one of the show’s hundred or so impossible epiphanies. A royal barge revolves on a placid sea; a boat rocks wildly and sinks; a woman plunges 70 ft. and is dragged back up; a beach suddenly comes to life with an acrobatic starfish and contortionist crabs; a forest of metal tubes features a giant stick

    bug, a scorpion and an 80-ft. snake; a tepee turns into a man-powered flying machine; actors scale a sheer cliff, an icy mountain – all onstage.

    Except there is no stage – anyway, not a stable floor. Instead, a void, out of which some ethereal miracles materialize. Many of them take place on two huge surfaces [...] (known as the sand-cliff deck) and a smaller one [...] that can simultaneously lift, rotate and tilt. Thus the actors must perform many of their maneuvers while the earth is literally moving under their feet. [...] Other scenes occur in midair, with the actors on wires or clinging to poles. That lends an antigravitational buoyancy to an artistic enterprise that revels in breaking all the rules about what technology can achieve and the human body can endure.

    Bigger than Vegas

    3. Getting the message

    A. Match the columns.

    a) The show starts with a battle between...b) The acrobatic feats must be... c) Besides injuring a performer, any misstep could...d) The theater side balconies allow the performers to... e) Some feats take place on surfaces that...

    ( e ) lift, rotate and tilt.( c ) kill the flow of the drama.( b ) perfect.( a ) good guys and bad guys.( d ) fly over the audience.

    B. Answer the questions according to the article.

    a) What does the nearly vertical position give the audience?

    It gives the audience a unique God’s-eye view of the action.

    b) Where is the show taking place?

    In a theater at Las Vegas’ MGM Grand.

    c) What was the company determined to do?

    They wanted to create something new under the Las Vegas sun – a spectacle of burly martial arts

    contained in a tender love story.

    d) What happens to the boat?

    It rocks wildly and sinks.

    e) Is there a stage for this show?

    No, there isn’t. There is not a stable floor.

    CORLISS, Richard. Bigger than Vegas. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 3 dez. 2011. 28

    29

    Ensino Médio | Modular 23

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • d) Barge

    C. What’s the aim of the article?( X ) To describe the show.( ) To teach people to do acrobatics.( X ) To talk about the history of Cirque du Soleil.

    A. Look at the pictures and write the words or expressions that describe them. Use the words in the box.

    tto scale a sheer cliffbarge

    outsize to plunge into the voidteppee

    to tilt

    a) Outsize b) To plunge into the void

    B. Find the following words in the article Bigger than Vegas. Then, match the words to their meanings.a) feats

    b) derring-do

    c) jaw-dropping

    d) to cradle

    e) wizardry

    f) to blend

    g) burly

    h) epiphanies

    ( c ) surprising, shocking

    ( f ) to mix together( g ) strong and heavy( d ) to hold something carefully and gently( a ) skillful and extraordinay actions or achievements( h ) moments of revelation and insight( e ) something created using a high level of skill( b ) brave and heroic feats

    c) To scale a sheer cliff

    e) Tepee f) To tilt

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    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing24

  • C. Read the sentences from the article and check the alternative that presents the meaning of each word according to its context.a) A woman plunges 70 ft. and is dragged back up.

    ( 1 ) ( 2 )

    1. ( X ) to fall into a surface 2. ( ) to prolong tediously ( ) decrease dramatically ( X ) to pull or be pulled with force

    b) The actors must perform many of their maneuvers. ( 3 )

    3. ( X ) a movement or procedure involving skill ( ) a clever or dishonest action that you do to get what you want

    c) Other scenes occur in midair, with the actors on wires or clinging to poles. ( 4 ) ( 5 )

    4. ( ) a collision involving two or more aircraft 5. ( X ) to hold tighly ( X ) a point or region in the air ( ) to try very hard to keep something

    d) That lends an antigravitational buoyancy to an artistic enterprise. ( 6 )

    6. ( ) lightness of spirit; cheerfulness ( X ) the tendency of an object to float

    1. Getting ready Look at the pictures and the names of the circus attractions. Match the columns. 31

    c Bicycle

    d German wheel

    f Spanish web

    a Acrobatic chair

    b Silk

    e Contortion

    30

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    Ensino Médio | Modular 25

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • 3. Getting the message

    A. Listen again and circle the option that is most appropriate.a) When Geneviève entered the National Circus School, she was (sixteen/sixty).

    b) At NCS, she discovered the vast and (diverse/different) world of the circus.

    c) She has learned that each individual has his own (strengths/stress).

    d) A teacher at NCS gave her a useful advice during her (first/fuss) year of studies.

    B. Write YES, if the sentence is correct according to the audio information, and NO if it is not.a) When she entered the National Circus School, Geneviève knew exactly what she was getting

    into. ( NO )

    b) Geneviève thinks it is brilliant the way the world of the circus attracts so many different people. ( YES )

    c) Geneviève believes in taking her strengths and using them instead of getting discouraged. ( YES )

    d) She has learned that if a person works very hard, she/he can get what she/he really wants. ( YES )

    e) Perseverance and commitment were very useful for her nine years ago, but she doesn’t need these characteristics anymore. ( NO )

    2. While listening 32Complete the following chart with the information you hear.

    1. Looking at languageDominar os tempos verbais da Língua Inglesa é de extrema importância. Tal domínio confere ao

    aluno a habilidade de expressar e articular suas ideias com mais facilidade e clareza. Ao contar uma história, marcada no passado, não se usa o tempo passado apenas. É possível utilizar o tempo presente para criar um clima de drama e tornar a história mais vívida.

    Veja o exemplo a seguir.

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    Name: Genevieve GauthierAge: 25.Specialty: aerial hoop.Circuses she has worked: Cirque du Soleil, CirqueÉloize and Circus Cirkor.

    Overview of the English verb system (time and tense)

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing26

  • 33

    Have I ever told you about the time when I was robbed by 2 men? It happened 2 years ago. I had finished work and had thought of walking back home instead

    of taking the bus. So, I’m walking back home when, suddenly, I see 2 men walking towards me. They tell me not to run, but I run as fast as my legs can carry me!

    A tabela apresentada a seguir se refere aos tempos verbais aprendidos até este momento. Ela é uma revisão do que já foi visto sobre esse assunto. Assim, ajude a construí-la. Sua tarefa será escrever as frases no lugar correto, de acordo com seu tempo verbal. Os espaços assinalados com um “x” se referem aos tempos verbais ainda não estudados.A. Leia as frases a seguir e complete a tabela.

    1. The girl was working at children’s parties last month. 2. “Practice makes perfect.” 3. I did an audition at a skate park in 2009. 4. We have been attending rehersals every day. 5. She had learned circus art before working as an acrobat. 6. I am practicing new tricks for the show. 7. John has taken his solo clown show to many cities in the world since 2007. 8. I will buy the tickets for the show tomorrow. 9. A circus artist practices hard every day.10. Helen has just finished her acrobatic classes.11. The clowns have done a good job.

    SIMPLE PROGRESSIVE

    PRESENT

    Simple Present1. Ação habitual.

    A circus artist practices hard every day.

    2. Fatos e generalizações.

    “Practice makes perfect.”

    Present ProgressiveAção em progresso no momento.

    I am practicing new tricks for the show.

    PAST

    Simple Past

    Ação que ocorreu em um tempo definido no passado.

    I did an audition at a skate park in 2009.

    Past ProgressiveAção ou atividade em progresso em algum momento no passado.

    The girl was working at children’s parties last month.

    FUTURE

    Future SimpleAção que irá acontecer em um tempo definido no futuro.

    I will buy the tickets for the show tomorrow.

    Future Progressive

    X

    Ensino Médio | Modular 27

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • 1. I started contortion when I was 10 years old.

    2. She had never experienced anything like dancing trapeze before, and she had so much fun doing that.

    3. The circus performers were doing Aerial Silk when the lights went off.

    4. The performance will finish at 10 p.m.

    2. Practical activities

    A. Choose the correct option from the picture to complete the sentences.

    PERFECT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

    PRESENT

    Present Perfect1. Ação que aconteceu em um tempo indefinido no passado.

    The clowns have done a good job.

    2. Ação que se completou recentemente.

    Helen has just finished her acrobatic classes.

    3. Ação incompleta (iniciou no passado, continua no presente e pode continuar no futuro).

    John has taken his solo clown show to many cities in

    the world since 2007.

    Present Perfect ProgressiveAção que começou no passado e continua até este momento.

    We have been attending rehersals every day.

    PAST

    Past PerfectAção passada anterior a outra também passada.

    She had learned circus art before working as an

    acrobat.

    Past Perfect Progressive

    X

    FUTUREFuture Perfect

    XFuture Perfect Progressive

    X

    had never experiencedwere doing

    startedwill finish

    B. Complete the sentences with the Simple Past or Present Perfect of the verbs and words given.a) I (stop/just) have just stopped reading the text about Cirque du Soleil. I

    (finish) finished my reading a few minutes ago.

    b) The artists (eat/already) have already eaten . They (eat) ate lunch two hours ago.

    c) The circus artists (receive) have always receivedlots of children as guests to watch their performances. Yesterday afternoon, the children (send)

    sent the artists their “thank you messages”.

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    @ How to form and use the Present Perfect Continuous [email protected]

    How to form and use the Present Perfect [email protected]

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing28

  • C. Circle the correct verbs according to their meaning.a) Circus arts offer / is offering young people the chance to express themselves.

    b) The teachers and students are coming / come from different backgrounds and nationalities.

    c) The circus program prepared / has prepared me for many adventures and challenges on this circus journey.

    d) Aerial and acrobatic circus performers have / are having to be fit.

    e) Joana has worked / worked as a trapeze artist for four years.

    D. Using the words in parentheses, complete the sentences with the appropriate tenses: Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous.a) How long (be) have they been in the gym?

    They (run) have been running for one hour. They look tired.

    b) Paulo (work) has been working for Marcos Frota Circo Show in Brasilia since he graduated from Escola de Circo Saltimbanco, but now he is talking about working for Cirque du Soleil in Canada. (work)

    c) I (think) have been thinking about changing my career because I (start) have started a course on psychology, but I still don’t know what to do.

    d) To help young people at risk, this circus (choose) has chosen to be involved in communities.

    e) The circus (be) has been around since the Ancient Romans. 34

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    a) What do these two pictures refer to?

    They refer to entertainment/circus/leisure and knowledge/book/school.

    b) In your opinion, which is more important in our society: knowledge or entertainment?

    Pessoal.

    c) Which one do people spend more money on: knowledge or entertainment?

    Pessoal.

    Look at the two pictures below and answer the questions. 35

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    Ensino Médio | Modular 29

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • There are also some circuses in Brazil, such as Circo Máximus – Londrina (PR), Marcos Frota Circo Show – Brasília (DF), Circo Stankowich – Shopping Interlagos (SP). In pairs, research other circuses and present it to your classmates. Write about how they work, a day in the life of a performer or the skills they have to develop. You can also research the life of a circus family. 37

    36

    38 You are going to read about some characteristics a circus performer must have. What qualities are important in your life or in the career you want to pursue? Are most of them the same?

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    Profile of a circus artistThe young artist remains highly versatile and autonomous while

    mastering a single discipline and demonstrating perseverance. A love of travel, a flexible attitude, and the ability to derive inspiration from diverse cultures are assets. The artist is aware of all forms of circus and other performing arts. An ability to combine creative and performing aptitudes serves to guarantee a successful career.NATIONAL CIRCUS SCHOOL. Profile of a circus artist. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 2 dez. 2011.

    Read the paragraph and check the correct answer.

    Employment marketThe ever-expanding employment market for circus artists is

    global in scope and increasingly diversified. A veritable craze for the circus has evolved, and it continues to attract growing audiences in countries around the world. There is in fact a shortage of circus artists in Canada, the United States, Europe and

    Oceania. The employment outlook is therefore quite promising for artists with a

    solid background.Within the first months following graduation, more than 95% of young artists find employment.

    NATIONAL CIRCUS SCHOOL. Employment market. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

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    1. According to the paragraph, if you pursue a career as a circus artist:

    a) you will find a job easily;

    b) you will find a very small employment market.2. The sentence “There is in fact a shortage of circus artists in Canada, the United States, Europe and

    Oceania.” means:

    a) There are a lot of circus artists in Canada, the United States, Europe and Oceania.

    b) There are not enough circus artists in Canada, the United States, Europe and Oceania.

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    Scope: oportunidadeVeritable: verdadeiro

    Craze: moda, maniaOutlook: visão,

    perspectiva

    39

    To master: dominarTo derive: obter

    Assets: vantagens, trunfos, bens

    X

    X

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing30

  • 40(IFSC) O texto a seguir refere-se à questão 1.

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    1. Choose the correct alternative(s) based on the typographical keys mainly.

    (01) Jimmy’s father does not realize the signs sent to his mother (on the table and on her own).

    (02) Jimmy’s mother is very angry because she has to do all the meal service alone.

    (04) Maggy is crying because she is afraid that the boy hurts the girl.

    X (08) Monica asks Santa Claus for a company to her plush rabbit Samson.

    (16) Next Christmas Monica wants a male and a female plush rabbit.

    Read the text and answer the questions.

    The circusHey, there! Hoop-la! The circus is in town!Have you seen the elephant? Have you seen the clown?Have you seen the dappled horse gallop round the ring?Have you seen the acrobats on the dizzy swing?Have you seen the tumbling men tumble up and down?Hoop-la! Hoop-la! the circus is in town![...]

    DENNIS, Clarence Michael James Stanislaus. The circus. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 6 dez. 2011.

    2. What kind of circus does the author refer to? ( X ) Traditional circus. ( ) Extreme circus.

    ( ) Contemporary circus. ( ) Modern circus.

    3. There are some differences between a traditional and a contemporary circus such as the use of animals. Write T for traditional and C for contemporary circus.( C ) It focuses solely on the gymnastic abilities

    of their agile performers.( T ) It doesn’t convey a theme or a story.( C ) There are lighting effects for a highly

    theatrical performance.( T ) There are animals as performers.( C ) It tends to focus more attention on the

    overall aesthetic impact.

    Ensino Médio | Modular 31

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

  • Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing32

    2. Do you know what Unicef does? Read the items and check the ones related to Unicef’s aims.( X ) Saving children’s lives.( ) Saving elders’ lives.( X ) Protecting childhood.( X ) Getting every child to school.( ) Protecting animals.( X ) Helping in emergencies.( X ) Treating and preventing HIV.

    42

    43

    1. Look at the flags and check the one that represents Unicef.

    a

    c

    b

    d

    X

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    41 “Children not only have the right to learn, but also have the right to be prepared to become active and productive citizens”, said Her Majesty [Queen Rania of Jordan].”PAGE, Ken. UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children, Her Majesty Queen Rania of Jordan Visits UNICEF-Supported Aprendiz City-School in São Paulo, Brazil. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 5 dez. 2011.

    Unicef-supported initiatives in Brazil3

  • Ensino Médio | Modular 33

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    1. Getting ready 44

    [...] Existing high-impact, low-cost interventions

    such as vaccines, antibiotics, micronutrien

    t

    supplementation, insecticide-treated bednets,

    improved breastfeeding practices and adoption o

    f

    safe hygiene practices can prevent unnecessary

    maternal and child deaths and reduce undernutrition

    .

    UNICEF. Young child survival and development

    . Disponível

    em: . Acesso

    em: 10 nov. 2011.

    Saving children’s lives.

    a

    Millions of children and adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean do not attend school, according to Unicef. Thousands more drop out of school before they finish their secondary education. [...]UNICEF. At Unicef seminar, students from region seek changes in secondary education. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

    Getting every child to school.

    b

    NEW YORK, USA, 17 January 2010 – More than 600 people are dead and some 15,000 homeless after flooding in Brazil that is being described as the country’s worst natural disaster in decades.

    UNICEF. Unicef concerned about children living in shelters after Brazil floods. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

    Helping in emergencies.

    c

    Helping homeless [email protected]

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    You are going to read excerpts of some articles about Unicef. Match them to three of the objectives presented in the previous exercise and write them down.

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  • 34 Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing

    3. Getting the messageA. Match summaries a-d with paragraphs 1-3 from the text.

    a) Children and adolescents' rights are violated. ( 3 )b) Brazil’s population. ( 1 )c) Unfair situation in Brazil’s most populous communities. ( 2 )d) Name of a Unicef’s supported initiative. ( 3 )

    B. Read the text and choose the correct alternative. 1. 60 million Brazilians are...

    a) older than 18. b) younger than 18. c) 18 years old.

    2. Brazilian children and adolescents are deeply affected by...a) inequity. b) the populous communities. c) their fundamental rights.

    3. The Platform for Urban Centers was created to...a) grant a certificate to local governments.b) reach at least 12 out of 20 goals for improving poverty-stricken communities.c) reduce the disparities which affect children and their families.

    X

    X

    X

    2. While reading 45

    Unicef-supported initiative aims to reverse inequities facing Brazilian youth

    1. NEW YORK, USA, August 23, 2011 – Brazil is a country populated by the outrageously wealthy and the devastatingly poor – there is little middle ground. With a total population of 193 million Brazilians, 60 million are under the age of 18, 38 per cent of whom live in poverty.

    2. This inequity generates a profound impact on the lives of children and adolescents living in the country’s most populous communities, as they constantly face the violation of their fundamental rights. Currently, homicide is the cause of 45 per cent of the deaths among young Brazilians between 12 and 18 years old.

    3. To help transform this grim reality, the Platform for Urban Centers was established in 94 communities in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Itaquaquecetuba. The Unicef-supported initiative aims to reduce the disparities which affect children and their families. By the end of 2011, Unicef will grant a certificate to local governments that reach at least 12 out of 20 goals for improving poverty-stricken communities.

    ASSEF, Julia. Unicef-supported initiative aims to reverse inequities facing Brazilian youth. Disponí-vel em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

  • LÍNGUA INGLESA

    Ensino Médio | Modular 35

    A. Match the words in bold in the text with their definitions a-g below. a) To give something for a specific purpose. grant

    b) A position between two opposite sides. middle ground

    c) An unpleasant situation. grim

    d) A situation that is unfair or unjust. inequity

    e) A noticeable difference between things or people. disparity

    f) Something very shocking or unreasonable, unacceptably. outrageously

    g) Suffix used with some nouns to describe people affected by serious problems. stricken

    B. Check the meaning of the expression in bold.“[...] that reach at least 12 out of 20 goals for improving poverty-stricken communities”.

    a) 20 goals are going to be reached.X b) 12 goals are going to be reached. c) Fewer than 12 goals are going to be reached. d) 8 goals are going to be reached.

    1. Getting ready 46

    In April, 2010, indigenous people from all over the world went to New York to participate in the Ninth Session of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. Discuss what, in your opinion, the two teenagers spoke up for at the forum.

    They spoke up for the indigenous rights.

    2. While listening 47

    You are going to listen to what the two teenagers spoke up for at the forum in 2010. While you listen to the article, write the name of the place they are from.

    They are from Pataxó de Coroa Vermelha, a small village in the Bahia region of north-eastern Brazil.

    3. Getting the messageA. Choose the correct answer according to what you hear.

    a) They sell few things, except handicrafts.b) The proximity to popular tourist destinations is good for the community.c) The community families sell handicrafts.X

  • Stative and dynamic verbs48

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing36

    1. Looking at languageLeia as seguintes frases:1. This tribe has a lot of problems.2. They are having rice and beans for lunch.3. The little Indian sees the tree next to the teepee. 4. The Indian is seeing the Unicef coordinator tomorrow.

    Leia as explicações completando-as.

    Duas frases estão escritas no tempo verbal Simple Present (has, sees) e as outras duas no Present Progressive (are having, is seeing). As frases que denotam ação são as de número 2 e 4 . Nas outras duas, 1 e 3 , os verbos são conhecidos como verbos de estado.

    Os verbos, em Língua Inglesa, podem ser classificados como estáticos e dinâmicos. Os verbos dinâmicos descrevem uma ação e podem ser usados no presente simples e no presente contínuo. Os verbos estáticos descrevem um estado, sentimento, percepção, cognição ou habilidade natural e, portanto, não podem ser usados na forma contínua.

    Alguns verbos estáticos podem ser usados na forma contínua porque descrevem um estado temporário ou porque há mudança em seu significado.

    Exemplo: I’ve lived in Curitiba my entire life. I’ve been living in São Paulo for 2 weeks.

    Leia os verbos a seguir e escreva E, ao lado do verbo, se ele for de estado, e A se for de ação.a) believe ( E ) b) run ( A ) c) want ( E ) d) belong to ( E )e) need ( E ) f) love ( E ) g) know ( E ) h) understand ( E )i) walk ( A ) j) write ( A )

    B. Check the correct option.

    1. Urapinã and Kãhu have formed the Pataxó Adolescents Group: a) to promote the rights of indigenous children and young people.b) to research their tradition and culture.c) to be optimistic.

    2. Kãhu wants:a) to change the future of his people;b) to change people’s future;c) to change nothing.

    C. Answer the questions below. a) What are the rights of the human being you've listened to?

    The human being’s rights are health, education, leisure.

    b) How do they feel in relation to the challenges they have to go through?

    They are optimistic.

    X

    X

    Use and formation of the Present Progressive

    @ING679

  • Ensino Médio | Modular 37

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    Agora, observe os usos e os significados dos verbos a seguir.

    BeO verbo be, geralmente, é um verbo de estado, mas, quando usado no infinitivo, significa comportar-se, atuar.

    a) The young Indian is nice. (é parte da personalidade dele ser agradável/legal)

    b) He is being nice. (somente agora ele está sendo agradá-vel/legal, não sempre)

    Think

    think (state) = ter uma opiniãoa) I think that coffee is great.

    think (action) = considerar, ter em menteb) What are you thinking about? I’m thinking

    about Unicef.

    Seesee (state) = ver com os olhos, enxergar/compreender, entendera) I see him now. He’s on the stage.b) I see what you mean.

    see (action) = encontrar / ter um relacionamento a) We are seeing Her Majesty Queen Rania tomorrow.b) I’ve been seeing my friends from Africa for three years.

    Havehave (state) = tera) The adolescents have lots of friends.

    have (action) = parte de uma expressão.b) We are having a good time at the forum.

    Tastetaste (state) = ter um gosto dea) This coffee from Brazil tastes great.

    taste (action) = provar, experimentarb) I’m tasting the Brazilian coffee.

    2. Practical activitiesA. Look at these stative verbs in the box. Which of them refer to the five senses?

    dislike smell understand imagine taste belong tohear know forget exist need think likefear envy care have own possess see

    hate love remember mean feel be believe

    Complete the sentences below with the correct form of smell, taste, hear, see, and feel.

    a) What perfume are you wearing? You smell great! (Simple Present)

    b) The Doctor is seeing a patient now. Would you like to wait? (Present Progressive)

    c) I've been hearing terrible things about him. (Present Perfect Progressive)

    d) I've heard he’s a good writer. (Present Perfect)

    e) Hands off! Don’t taste my ice cream. (Simple Present)

    f) She is so optimistic. I don’t know why she is feeling hopeless today. (Present Progressive)

    B. Read the sentences and write S for stative verbs, D for dynamic verbs and SD when it is a state verb but its being used as an action verb.

    a) Why is James tasting the food? ( SD )

    b) The little Indians are running fast. ( D )

    c) The chief of the tribe has a big teepee. ( S )

    d) The children are always forgetting things. ( SD )

    e) Sorry, I’ve forgotten where you are from. ( S )

  • 38

    C. Check the wrong sentences and correct them.

    a) He is not seeing the problems of the Brazilian children. ( X )

    b) This fish tastes delicious. ( )

    c) You look tired. Were you running? ( )

    d) These cards aren’t belonging to me. ( X )

    e) I’m sorry. I’m not understanding what you mean. ( X )

    a) He doesn’t see the problems of the Brazilian children.

    d) These cards don’t belong to me.

    e) I’m sorry. I don’t understand what you mean.

    Read the excerpts and choose one to discuss with your partner. What is the main idea of each one? Then, write a paragraph about the one you have chosen. Give examples of situations that have happened in your community/city. 50

    49

    c) “As a start, in order to understand the reality of the health conditions of our community, we carried out a diagnosis and presented the findings to the local authorities and pointed out the unmet health needs of our population,” explained Flaviano. “I am really glad to know that my voice can make a difference in my community.”UNICEF. Unicef executive director Anthony Lake meets with Brazilian youth and addresses their concerns. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

    b) “We want the voices of children and adolescents to be heard and spread. We are part of the solution for the problems of the city,” said Felipe, along with another young participant named Vivianne. “The Platform must be the bridge that will make visible what happens in the communities, contributing to put an end to negative stereotypes. We want to show off the good things youths are doing in the communities.”UNICEF. Launch of “Platform of Urban Centres” initiative in Brazil. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 22 nov. 2011.

    a) “Adolescents play a key role in strengthening and mobilizing their community. In the Platform, 200 young people participate in a process which deepens their knowledge of public policy and teaches them how to dialogue with the government, civil society and the media.”ASSEF, Julia. Unicef-supported initiative aims to reverse iniquities facing Brazilian youth. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

    Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing

  • Ensino Médio | Modular 39

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    In this unit two initiatives (Platform for Urban Centers and The Aprendiz City-School) were presented. Read the excerpt and research other supported initiatives here in Brazil. Present your findings to your classmates showing the importance of the initiative.

    At Aprendiz, Mr. Glover observed young people producing wall-graffiti paintings in an outdoor gallery, while others painted colourful t-shirts. He also observed English classes for students preparing to take university entrance exams. Mr. Glover spoke to the young Brazilians in the classes and encouraged them to play an active role in constructing their own future and fighting social injustice. 52

    UNICEF. Goodwill Ambassador Danny Glover inspires, and is inspired by, youths in São Paulo. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

    51

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    As we can see, Unicef has been doing lots of initiatives to change not only the situation of poor children and adolescents but also preparing them to perform social transformation. Discuss with a classmate your participation in the social transformation of your community, your city or your country.

    In order to encourage adolescents’ participation in decision-making areas and encourage them to perform social transformation, Unicef and partners conduct training sessions on themes related to youth political participation. “I always say that I owe the Platform my knowledge about the rights and duties that I have in my community”, said Sabrina.ASSEF, Julia. Unicef-supported initiative aims to reverse inequities facing Brazilian youth. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011. 54

    Ensino Médio | Modular 3

    Read about Unicef and discuss its purpose with a friend. Are the children’s rights being enforced in Brazil? What is your opinion about that?

    Who we are

    Unicef is the driving force that helps build a world where the rights of every child are realized. We have the global authority to influence decision–makers, and the variety of partners at grassroots level to turn the most innovative ideas into reality. That makes us unique among world organizations, and unique among those working with the young.

    We believe that nurturing and caring for children are the cornerstones of human progress. Unicef was created with this purpose in mind — to work with others to overcome the obstacles that poverty, violence, disease and discrimination place in a child’s path. We believe that we can, together, advance the cause of humanity.

    We advocate for measures to give children the best start in life, because proper care at the youngest age forms the strongest foundation for a person’s future.

    [...]

    UNICEF. About Unicef: Who we are. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 10 nov. 2011.

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  • 40 Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing

    (UNCISAL) O texto a seguir refere-se às questões de 1 a 4.

    Threatened tribes

    Movie star Julie Christie and NGO Survival International, both from England, have just launched a campaign to save from extinction tribes that do not have contact with civilization. The central part is a documentary narrated by her, on some of the most ancient and threatened tribes of the world. “Over 100 tribes in the world keep refusing any contact. They are among the most vulnerable people on Earth and can be devastated in the next 20 years, unless their rights to land are recognized and defended”, declared Julie to Survival. “The world is certainly big enough for everyone, including those whose lifestyle is different from ours.”

    According to Survival, there are tribes in Brazil today with only two or three survivors. The other members died in the hands of cattle raisers or due to diseases transmitted by white people.

    (EcoSpyBrazil Magazine, October, 2007)

    1. De acordo com o texto, muitas tribos estão desa-parecendoa) devido à influência cultural de povos mais

    civilizados.b) por causa do seu estilo de vida totalmente di-

    ferente de outras civilizações.c) por desrespeito às suas áreas e exposição a

    doenças.d) porque são extremante antigas e não têm di-

    reito à terra.e) porque a devastação do seu território tem re-

    duzido a área para criação de gado.

    2. No trecho: “‘They are among the most vulnerable people on Earth and can be devastated in the next 20 years, unless their rights to land are recognized and defended', declared Julie to Survival.”, o termo their refere-se a:a) Julie Christie and NGO International Survival;b) in the next 20 years;c) campaign;d) civilization;e) threatened tribes.

    3. Assinale a alternativa em que o termo destacado é empregado como adjetivo:a) “Movie star Julie Christie and NGO Survival

    International, both from England, have just launched a campaign [...]”.

    b) “The world is certainly big enough for everyone, including those whose lifestyle is different from ours.”

    c) “They are among the most vulnerable people on Earth and can be devastated in the next 20 years, [...]”.

    d) ”The central part is a documentary narrated by her, on some of the most ancient and threatened tribes of the world.”

    e) “[...] unless their rights to land are recognized and defended”, declared Julie to Survival.”

    4. O termo over em “Over 100 tribes in the world keep refusing any contact.” significa:a) até;b) aproximadamente;c) a respeito de;d) sobre;e) mais de.

    (UFTM) O texto a seguir refere-se às questões de 5 a 7.

    TextoThe Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) is an alliance driven by the vision of a world without malnutrition.GAIN mobilizes public- (I) partnerships and provides financial and technical support to deliver healthier foods and supplements to those people most at risk of malnutrition.Our innovative partnership projects in more than 25 countries are improving the lives of ( II ) 200 million people. Our project portfolio is growing and our goal is to reach one billion people.

    (www.gainhealth.org/ & The Economist, September 2009.)

    5. A principal missão da organização não governa-mental GAIN é

    a) mobilizar outras ONGs para que se extermine a fome no mundo.

    b) arrecadar a ajuda de um bilhão de pessoas.

    c) distribuir alimentação para crianças que so-frem de má nutrição.

    d) diminuir a má nutrição através de diversas ações.

    e) convencer outros países a distribuir fortificantes a pessoas famintas.

    X

    X

    X

    X

    X

  • Ensino Médio | Modular 41

    LÍNGUA INGLESA

    6. Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente os espaços ( I ) e ( II ), respectivamente:a) governmental... fewer thanb) industrialized... mostc) private... nearlyd) rich... more thane) innovative... all

    7. Observe a palavra other em “[...] through food fortification and other strategies aimed at [...]” e indique a alternativa na qual other está corre-tamente empregada.a) Other mission. b) Other risk.c) Other goal. d) Other alliance.e) Other people.

    (PUCSP) From the Rural World to Urban EnvironmentBy Alfonso Hernández Marín

    The powerful influence of the city

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    Irregular urbanization is one of the biggest problems in the megacities, involving social and economical marginalization

    What moves people to the big cities? According to experts like Jose Maria Llop, director of the program on “Intermediate Cities and World Urbanization” in the International Union of Architects, one could talk of the “fascination” that the city provokes as an image or interpretation of reality in its greatest socio-economic and historic scale. Some sociologists and anthropologists agree that the modern city represents the ultimate capitalist structure, the height of civilization, and its influence on the collective subconscious could be powerful enough to attract more and more people, even when the opportunities for progress and wellbeing are often false expectations.

    The great megalopolis or world metropolis of our era, which many call an “urban revolution”, is characterized by their duality in presenting a series of opportunities and problems. The first refers to greater autonomy, diversity of offers (employment,

    training, leisure, culture), the opportunity to participate in public politics, the socialization of new technologies and more options in terms of residence, activities or types of mobility.

    However, social segregation in a space has never been so pronounced, with growing inequalities in income and in real access to urban opportunities, vulnerable groups that often live in ghettos or peripheral neighborhoods, and the increase in both transport time and time at work. All this provides a breeding ground for solitude and lack of solidarity and common environmental, urban and social problems such as criminality, poor outskirts and breakdown of common living structures.

    (www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2007/webArticles/040507_culturalchange.htm.) Adaptação.

    8. Segundo o texto, as grandes cidadesa) são a última conquista do capitalismo moderno.b) atraem cada vez mais pessoas devido ao seu

    fascínio.c) influenciam o progresso coletivo e apagam as

    desigualdades.d) interpretam a realidade baseadas em falsas

    expectativas.e) promovem historicamente a igualdade socio-

    econômica.

    9. No trecho do segundo parágrafo do texto “The first refers to greater autonomy [...],” a expressão “the first” refere-se a:a) great megalopolis. b) urban revolution.c) duality. X d) opportunities.e) problems.

    10. No trecho do terceiro parágrafo do texto “However , social segregation in a space has never been so pronounced,” a palavra however indica:a) contraste; b) conformidade; c) alternativa; d) ênfase; e) explicação.

    11.The picture that illustrates the text shows:a) the false expectations of some sociologists and

    anthropologists;b) the diversity of offers in terms of residence,

    activities and types of mobility;c) one of the problems of the world metropolis;d) that most people in poor areas suffer from

    solitude;e) that people participate in public politics.

    X

    X

    X

    X

    X

  • Reading comprehension; phrasal verbs, passive voice; stative, dynamic, sensory and causative verbs; standardized testing42

    Art exists because life is not enough.Ferreira Gullar (tradução livre)

    56

    Match the pictures to the types of art below. Which is your favorite type? 57

    1. Literature2. Painting3. Sculpture4. Cinema

    5. Music6. Pottery7. Theater8. Dance

    9. Architecture10. Handicrafts11. Drawing12. Fashion

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