Semina: Cincias Agrrias
Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Bartolomeu Agustini, Mrcia Antonia; de Matos Malavasi, Marlene; Stangarlin, Jos
Renato; Ricken Schuelter, Adilson; Contro Malavasi, Ubirajara; Oliveira dos Santos,
Heloisa; Walace Pereira, Rucyan
Physiological performance and electrophoretic pattern of isoenzymes in Phaseolus
vulgaris Lam. seeds treated with essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam
Semina: Cincias Agrrias, vol. 37, nm. 2, marzo-abril, 2016, pp. 625-638
Universidade Estadual de Londrina
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625Semina: Cincias Agrrias, Londrina, v. 37, n. 2, p. 625-638, mar./abr. 2016
Recebido para publicao 19/02/14 Aprovado em 24/07/15
Physiological performance and electrophoretic pattern of isoenzymes in Phaseolus vulgaris Lam. seeds treated with
essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam
Desempenho fisiolgico e padro eletrofortico de isoenzimas em sementes de Phaseolus vulgaris Lam. tratadas com leo
essencial de Moringa oleifera Lam
Mrcia Antonia Bartolomeu Agustini1*; Marlene de Matos Malavasi2; Jos Renato Stangarlin2; Adilson Ricken Schuelter2; Ubirajara Contro Malavasi2;
Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos3; Rucyan Walace Pereira4
In order to investigate the effect of different doses of essential oil of Moringa oleifera (EOM) on physiological potential and the expression of isoenzymes in bean seeds, an experiment was conducted with two cultivars (Colibri and Campos Gerais) and seven treatments (bactericidal, fungicide and the doses 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% EOM). Germination, first count of germination, germination speed index (GSI), emergence and emergence rate index (ERI) were evaluated in addition to the enzymes esterase (EST), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and isocitrate lyase (ICL) by electrophoresis. In an experiment conducted in the laboratory, the dose containing 0.4% EOM promoted germination and higher averages for first germination in seeds and GSI in the Colibri cultivar. However, the highest dose used (0.8%) was responsible for the worst physiological performance by the cultivar. For Campos Gerais, increasing doses of essential oil stimulated germination, first count of germination and GSI. In the field, higher doses of essential oil gave higher germination percentages for the Colibri cultivar, not influencing the seeds of Campos Gerais. The ERI was not altered by the treatments with OEM and changes in the molecular forms of the isoenzymes were observed, with low expression values of bands for EST, ICL and ADH-related vigor, the germination of both cultivars, as well as increased expression of SOD, which is associated with reductions in germination.Key words: Bean. Germination. Moringa. Vigor.
A fim de investigar o efeito de diferentes doses de leo essencial de Moringa oleifera (OEM) no potencial fisiolgico e expresso de isoenzimas em sementes de feijo, conduziu-se um experimento com duas cultivares (Campos Gerais e Colibri) e sete tratamentos (bactericida, fungicida e as doses 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 e 0.8% de leo essencial). Foram avaliados a germinao, primeira contagem de germinao, ndice de velocidade de germinao (IVG), emergncia e ndice de velocidade de emergncia (IVE), alm das enzimas esterase (EST), lcool desidrogenase (ADH), superxido dismutase (SOD) e isocitrato liase (ICL) por meio de eletroforese. Em experimento conduzido em laboratrio, a dose contendo 0.4% de
1 Prof, Universidade Tecnolgica Federal do Paran, UTFPR, Medianeira, PR, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Profs., Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paran, UNIOESTE, Marechal Cndido Rondon, PR, Brasil. E-mail: marlenemalavasi@
yahoo.com.br; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com Prof, Universidade Federal de Lavras, UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Discente, UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com* Author for correspondence
626Semina: Cincias Agrrias, Londrina, v. 37, n. 2, p. 625-638, mar./abr. 2016
Agustini, M. A. B. et al.
OEM promoveu incremento na germinao e maiores mdias para primeira contagem de germinao e IVG nas sementes da cultivar Colibri. No entanto, a maior dose utilizada (0.8%) foi responsvel pelo pior desempenho fisiolgico para a cultivar. Para Campos Gerais, as doses crescentes de leo essencial estimularam a germinao, a primeira contagem de germinao e IVG. campo, as doses de leo essencial conferiram maior porcentagem de emergncia para a cultivar Colibri, no influenciando as sementes da cultivar Campos Gerais. O IVE no sofreu alterao e modificaes nas formas moleculares das isoenzimas foram observadas, estando os baixos valores de expresso de bandas para EST, ICL e ADH, relacionadas ao maior vigor e germinao das sementes de ambas as cultivares, bem como, maior expresso de SOD, associada reduo na germinao.Palavras-chave: Feijo. Germinao. Moringa. Vigor.
The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Lam.) is a native legume of the Americas, and is an important protein source in the diet of the worlds population. In Brazil, the worlds largest bean producer, the area occupied by the crop of first, second and third harvests account for around 3.36 million hectares according to data from the Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento CONAB for the year 2014, with production estimated at 3.56 million tons; of this total, more than half is made up of the carioca trade group, which is preferred by consumers in the South Central region of the country (CONAB, 2014).
In Paran agriculture (the largest producer in the country), the bean is a major concern. It is the fourth culture in planted area and is mainly cultivated by small and medium producers, demanding family work and hired labor (SEAB, 2012).
However, the bean plant is susceptible to many diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses transmitted internally and externally to the seed during the storage period in the field and that can directly influence its quality. Therefore, their productivity can be affected since there is a reduction in germination with a loss of seed vigor and deterioration of the same, given that poor seed quality is one cause of low productivity of bean crops in Brazil (SILVA et al., 2008).
Among microorganisms, fungi and bacteria that attack the bean seeds constitute important dissemination vehicles and the introduction of pathogens in an area. Thus, the seed is the
appropriate structure to undergo processes or receive substances suitable for the preservation or improvement of their performance (seed treatment). However, bactericides and fungicides that are currently available for the treatment of seeds present major problems of environmental and human contamination and, because they are synthetic, their use is prevented in the organic sector. Thus, combined with global environmental awareness, research on natural control alternatives related to the preservation of beneficial fauna and elimination of their natural enemies has expanded greatly (MIGLIORINI et al., 2012).
Alternatively, it is necessary to seek sustainable ways of controlling diseases in various crops such as extracts and essential oils from plants with fungicidal and bactericidal properties in order to control phytopathogenic microorganisms associated with seeds.
Among vegetables with the potential to act as an antimicrobial is moringa (Moringa oleifera Lamarck). Essential oils, aqueous and methanolic extracts of this plant have shown positive results in the elimination of pathogens (fungi and bacteria) in experiments conducted mostly in vitro. However, despite the proven antimicrobial activity of many essential oils, they can also interfere with seed germination because they have allelopathic activity and have been used as antimicrobials in substrate germination or seed treatment. Grosso et al. (2010) emphasized that mono- and sesquiterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, can affect physiological processes in plants.
627Semina: Cincias Agrrias, Londrina, v. 37, n. 2, p. 625-638, mar./abr. 2016
Physiological performance and electrophoretic pattern of isoenzymes in Phaseolus vulgaris Lam. seeds treated with essential...
Therefore, to be effective in eliminating pathogens transmitted by the seed, an essential oil should present toxic effects to pathogenic microorganisms and should not adversely affect the physiological potential of the seeds as determined by germination and vigor tests.
In seed technology, isoenzymes play a critical role in the identification of processes that lead to understanding the physiological condition of the seeds; they can be used as molecular markers to elucidate events that occur during the germination process (ALBUQUERQUE et al., 2009) and may, in some cases, help in understanding the cause of reductions in vigor and viability (GALVO et al., 2014).
Among the most stu