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Tamar SoTaZeewmi- avtori Tamar SoTaZe , samarTlis doqtori, Tsu iurid - iuli fakultetis asistent-profesori kerZo samarTlis mimarTulebiT, advokati This textbook is made possible by the

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Text of Tamar SoTaZeewmi- avtori Tamar SoTaZe , samarTlis doqtori, Tsu iurid - iuli fakultetis...

naSromSi mocemuli mosazrebebi da msjeloba akademiur da sainformacio xasiaTs atarebs da ar warmoadgens samarTlebriv an sxvagvar konsultacias. avtori da redaqtori pasuxismgeblobas ar iReben mkiTxvelis mier naSromis Sinaarsis an masSi mocemuli mosaz- rebebis nebismieri saxiT gamoyenebaze.
redaqtori giorgi juReli, samarTlis doqtori, komerciuli samarTlis mrCeveli EWMI-JILEP
avtori Tamar SoTaZe, samarTlis doqtori, Tsu iurid- iuli fakultetis asistent-profesori kerZo samarTlis mimarTulebiT, advokati
This textbook is made possible by the generous support of the American people
through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The con-
tents are the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily relect the views of USAID, the United States Government or East West Management Institute.
winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo Seiqmna amerikis xalxis keTili nebiT, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos (USAID) meSveobiT. saxelmZRvanelos SinaarsisaTvis pa- suxismgebelia avtori. naSromSi ganxiluli Temebi ar warmoadgens amerikis mTavrobis oficialur mosazrebas da ar asaxavs amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobis, SeerTebuli Statebis saerTaSori- so ganviTarebis saagentos (USAID) an aRmosavleT-dasavleTis marT- vis institutis Sexedulebebs.
© gamomcemloba `meridiani~, 2014
ISBN 978-9941-10-927-0
TAMAR SHOTADZE
PROPERTY LAW
saxelmZRvaneloze muSaobis periodSi mudmivad viRebdi Rirebul daxmarebas JILEP-gan samecniero literaturiT, aseve akademiuri werisa da profesiul eTikaSi Catarebuli treningebiT. yovelTvis vgrZnobdi proeqtis mxardaWeras,rac Zalian damexmara sauniversi- teto saxelmZRvanelos SeqmnaSi.
aRniSnuli saxelmZRvanelos struqtura da Sinaarsi agebulia Tanamedrove umaRlesi saswavleblebis sauniversiteto saxelmZRvan- loebis modelze. samecniero-pedagogiuri muSaobis gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, Sevecade, gameTvaliswinebina studentebisaTvis misaRe- bi formati, rac, vimedovneb, maT SesaZleblobas miscemT, sanivTo samarTlis institutebi da samarTlebrivi problemebi sistemuri midgomis safuZvelze Seiswavlon.
saxelmZRvaneloSi ganxilul sakiTxze mocemulia Teoriuli dasabuTeba, sakanonmdeblo regulireba, praqtikuli davalebebi da samosamarTlo samarTali. wignSi gamoyenebuli praqtikuli komponen- tebi studentebs miscems SesaZleblobas, individualuri muSaobiT gaiRrmavon codna. gansakuTrebiT didia avtoris pasuxismgebloba samarTlis aRniSnul dargSi muSaobisas, vinaidan sanivTo samarT- lis codna mniSvnelovani sawindaria kerZo samarTalSi warmatebuli profesiuli saqmianobisTvis.
1997 wels saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis miRebiT ganxor- cielda qarTuli kerZo samarTlis dabruneba kontinenturi evro- pis samarTlis sivrecSi, rac, vfiqrob, gvavaldebulebs, SedarebiTi samarTalmcodneobis daxmarebiT SevZloT erovnuli kanonmdeblo- bis ganviTareba da srulyofa. amdenad, mniSvnelovania evropul qveynebSi arsebuli samarTlebrivi suraTis Seswavla. saxelmZRvane- lo mkiTxvels miscems SesaZleblobas, samarTlebriv problemebs Se- darebiT-samarTlebrivi kuTxiTac Sexedos.
madloba minda vuTxra Cems studentebs, romlebic did stimuls maZlevdnen saxelmZRvaneloze muSaobis procesSi. maTTan dialogi problematur sakiTxze miadvilebda sakiTxebis maTTvis misaRebi eniT ganxilvas. maT mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi gaziarebuli da asaxulia saxelmZRvaneloSi.
gansakuTrebulad minda aRvniSno qarTveli mecnierebis wvlili
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vdore niniZis mimarT, maT mier Seqmnili saxelmZRvaneloebi da mono- grafiuli kvlevebi mniSvnelovani wyaro gaxldaT aRniSnul saxelmZ- Rvaloze muSaobis procesSi. gansakuTrebuli madloba Cems mecnier xelmZRvanels profesor baton besarion zoiZes, romlis Rvawli Cemi profesiuli Camoyalibebis gzaze ganuzomlad didia.
aseve minda gansakuTrebuli madliereba gamovxato JILEP-is pro- eqtis farglebSi mowveuli ucxoeli eqspertebis mimarT. profesor dilein svensonis master-klasi, misi rCevebi da rekomendaciebi Ta- namedrove swavlebis meTodebsa da akademiuri weris standarteb- ze aqtualuri da mniSvnelovani iyo saxelmZRvanelos SemuSavebis saqmeSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom saxelmZRvaneloze muSaobis procesSi gansa-
kuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo JILEP-is mxardaWera Tematuri konferen-
ciebisa da samuSao Sexvedrebis saxiT. vfiqrob, saqarTveloSi didxans
emaxsovrebaT proeqtis inovaciebi da misi damsaxureba qarTuli iu-
ridiuli ganaTlebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
Tamar SoTaZe
6
sarCevi
1. sanivTo samarTali _ cneba .............................................................................20
2. sanivTo samarTlis normebi ...........................................................................23
3. sanivTo samarTlis sistema ............................................................................24
4. sanivTo samarTlis wyaroebi .........................................................................25
1. `Numerus clausus~ _ `daxurul ricxvTa~ principi ................................29
2. specialurobis (gansazRvrulobis) principi .......................................31
5. sanivTo uflebaTa midevnebis principi ...................................................33
6. sajaroobis principi ........................................................................................33
7. kauzalurobis principi ..................................................................................35
III. sanivTo uflebebi ................................................................................... 38
5. xelSekrulebaSi sanivTo uflebis warmomSobi piroba .....................43
B. praqtikuli nawili _ kiTxvebi TviTSefasebisaTvis ..........................44
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ....................................................................................45
1. sanivTo uflebaTa cneba da niSnebi ............................................................45
2. sanivTo uflebaTa pandeqturi sawyisebi .................................................47
II. sanivTo ufleba ........................................................................................ 48
samarTlis qveynebSi ................................................................................... 50
1.1. `Numerus clausus“ _ `daxurul ricxvTa“ principi ......................51 1.2. specialurobis principi .............................................................52 1.3. absoluturobis principi ...........................................................53 1.4. moTxovnaTa prioritetulobis principi ..................................53 1.5. sajaroobis principi ...................................................................54 1.6. abstraqciisa da dayofis principi ............................................54 1.7. sajaro ndobis principi ..............................................................55
qoneba ............................................................................................................... 59
1. gadacemadi aramaterialuri qonebrivi sikeTis saerTo niSnebi ....66
2. uflebebi, romelTa gadacema mesame pirTaTvis dasaSvebia .............67
IV. rTuli nivTebi ......................................................................................... 70
1. nivTis Semadgeneli nawili ............................................................................70
3. sakuTvnebeli ........................................................................................................72
VI. religiuri gaerTianebebis qoneba .................................................... 75
VII. individualuri da gvarovnuli nivTebi ......................................... 76
VIII. nivTisa da uflebis nayofi ................................................................ 79
1. nayofi ......................................................................................................................79
1.1. nivTis nayofis saxeebi ................................................................ 80 1.2. uflebis nayofis saxeebi ............................................................. 80
2. nayofis miRebis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi .........................................81
3. nayofis miRebaze gaweuli danaxarjebis anazRaurebis wesi ...........83
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II. germania ....................................................................................................... 88
III. safrangeTi ................................................................................................ 89
2. mflobelobis saxeebi .......................................................................................92
3. mflobeloba, rogorc sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis
winapiroba ...................................................................................................99
B. praqtikuli nawili .........................................................................................107
III. kazusebi .................................................................................................... 109
II. mflobeloba safrangeTis samoqalaqo samarTalSi ................... 111
III. mflobeloba germaniis samoqalaqo samarTalSi ........................ 115
sakuTrebis ufleba ................................................................................... 118
A. Teoriuli nawili ............................................................................................118
2. sakuTrebis obieqtis marTva ........................................................................122
3.1. uflebis borotad gamoyeneba ..................................................................123
3.2. sakuTrebis uflebis SezRudva ...............................................................124
II. sakuTrebis saxeebi ................................................................................. 125
III. saerTo sakuTreba ................................................................................. 127
1. saerTo sakuTrebis saxeebi ...........................................................................128
4. saerTo sakuTrebis obieqtTan dakavSirebuli xarjebi ..................130
5. saerTo sakuTrebis obieqtis gankargva ..................................................131
6. TanamesakuTris wilis gankargva ...............................................................132
1.1. sakuTrebis uflebis dacva TviTdaxmarebis gziT .................136 1.2. sakuTrebis uflebis dacva samarTaldamcavi organos
meSveobiT .......................................................................................137 1.3. sakuTrebis uflebis dacva sasamarTlos meSveobiT ..............138 1.4. ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova _ vindikacia ......140 1.5. xelSeSlis aRkveTis moTxovna _ negatoruli sarCeli .........140 1.6. sakuTrebis uflebis darRveviT miyenebuli zianis
anazRaureba ...................................................................................141
3. upiratesi Sesyidvis ufleba .......................................................................144
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ..................................................................................150
II. sanivTo uflebaTa dacvis saSualebebi .......................................... 152
III. sarCelTa tipebi .................................................................................... 153
qveynebSi ....................................................................................................... 155
sakuTrebis SeZena da dakargva .............................................................. 158
A. Teoriuli nawili ............................................................................................158
II. sakuTrebis SeZena da dakargva uZrav nivTebze ........................... 158
1. uZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis wesi ....................158
2. uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis damdgeni dokumentebi ............160
3. uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis pirobebi ..............162
4. uZrav nivTze samomavlo sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSoba .............163
5. uZrav nivTze uflebis winaswari registracia ...................................164
6. uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis Sewyveta ........................................164
7. uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis mitoveba ........................................165
8. uZravi nivTis SemZenis _ axali mesakuTris interesebis dacva ...166
III. sakuTrebis SeZena da dakargva moZrav nivTebze ........................ 172
1. sakuTrebis SeZena moZrav nivTebze ..........................................................172
1.1. moZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis gadacema garigebis safuZvelze ...................................................................................173
1.2. moZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis gadacema fasiani qaRaldebis meSveobiT ..................................................................174
1.3. pirobadebuli sakuTreba ..........................................................175
1.5. moZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis mopoveba, roca ucnobia mis gankargvaze uflebamosili piri .................................................179
1.5.1. sakuTrebis SeZena upatrono moZrav nivTze ........................180 1.5.2. napovari ....................................................................................181 1.5.3. ganZi ..........................................................................................182 1.6. nivTTa gaerTianeba, rogorc kanonismieri sakuTrebis uflebis
sikeTeebze ................................................................................................... 188
1.1. moTxovnaTa saxeebi ....................................................................189 1.2. moTxovnis an uflebis daTmobis forma ..................................190 1.3. moTxovnis daTmoba xelSekrulebiT ........................................190 1.4. moTxovnis an uflebis gadacema kanonis safuZvelze ............191 1.5. movalis informireba moTxovnis daTmobisas .........................192 1.6. uzrunvelyofis saSualebaTa samarTlebrivi bedi moTxovnis
daTmobisas ....................................................................................194 1.7. moTxovnis ramdenjerme gadacema .............................................196
B. praqtikuli nawili .........................................................................................206
IV. kazusebi mcire jgufebSi samuSaod ................................................ 209
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II. gadacemis samarTlebrivi buneba ...................................................... 216
III. nivTis SemTxveviTi daRupvis an dazianebis riski .................... 218
SezRuduli sanivTo uflebebi .............................................................. 220
VI. aRnagobis uflebis ipoTekiT datvirTva ..................................... 227
B. praqtikuli nawili .........................................................................................229
II. kazusebi mcire jgufebSi samuSaod ................................................. 230
III. kiTxvebi studentTa TviTSefasebisaTvis ................................... 235
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ..................................................................................236
II. superficia pandeqtur samarTalSi ................................................. 237
III. evropul kodifikaciebSi mSeneblobis memkvidreobiTi uflebis
Camoyalibebis istoria ............................................................................ 239
III. uzufruqtis saxeebi .............................................................................. 244
IV. uzufruqtis xelSekruleba ............................................................... 245
B. praqtikuli nawili .........................................................................................249
II. kazusebi mcire jgufebSi samuSaod ................................................. 250
III. kiTxvebi studentTa TviTSefasebisaTvis ................................... 252
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ..................................................................................253
I. uzufruqti ................................................................................................ 253
III. uzufruqti evropul kodifikaciebSi ............................................ 255
servituti ..................................................................................................... 257
IV. piradi servituti ................................................................................. 260
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II. kazusebi mcire jgufebSi samuSaod ................................................. 264
III. kiTxvebi studentTa TviTSefasebisaTvis ................................... 266
IV. davaleba individualuri muSaobisaTvis ..................................... 267
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ...................................................................................272
moTxovnis uzrunvelyofis samarTali ............................................... 275
giravnoba ...................................................................................................... 277
2. giravnobiT uzrunvelyofili moTxovna ...............................................293
2.2. giravnobiT uzrunvelyofili moTxovnis daTmoba ................298
3. giravnobis saxeebi ...........................................................................................299
4.1. giravnobis saganze pirdapiri mflobeloba ............................307 4.2. giravnobis sagniT sargebloba .................................................307 4.3. giravnobis saganis gankargva ....................................................309
5. mogiravnisa da damgiraveblis uflebebis dacva ...............................312
6. giravnobis uflebis Sewyveta .....................................................................313
SesrulebiT ...................................................................................316 6.6. giravnobis uflebis Sewyveta surogaciiT .............................318 6.7. giravnobis sagnis specifikacia ................................................320
7.1. kreditoris moTxovnis dakmayofilebamde gansaxorcielebeli moqmedebebi ...................................................................................322
7.1.1. giravnobis sagnis gadacema realizaciis uflebis mqone mogiravnisaTvis ............................................................................322
7.1.2. giravnobis sagnis mosalodneli realizaciis Sesaxeb Setyobinebis valdebuleba ..........................................................324
7.1.3. registrirebuli wina mogiravnis Setyobinebis valdebuleba .325 7.2. kreditoris moTxovnis dakmayofileba giravnobis saganze
sakuTrebis mopovebiT .................................................................326 7.3. mogiravnis moTxovnis dakmayofileba giravnobis sagnis
ganawilebis wesi ...........................................................................330 7.3.6. realizaciis Sesaxeb angariSis wardgenis wesi ....................331
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IV. kazusebi mcire jgufebSi samuSaod ................................................ 335
V. kiTxvebi studentTa TviTSefasebisaTvis .................................... 340
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ..................................................................................344
1. giravnobiT uzrunvelyofili moTxovna ...............................................346
ipoTeka .......................................................................................................... 356
1. ipoTekis uflebis subieqtebi ......................................................................358
1.1. kreditori _ ipoTekari .............................................................358 1.2. movale da uZravi nivTis mesakuTre .........................................359 1.3. ipoTekis obieqtTan dakavSirebuli mesame pirebi ....................360
II. ipoTekis saxeebi ..................................................................................... 365
2. kerZosamarTlebrivi kanonismieri ipoTeka .........................................367
1. ipoTekis xelSekruleba ................................................................................372
IV. ipoTekiT datvirTuli nivTis movlis movaleoba .................... 375
V. ipoTekis sagnis dazRveva ................................................................... 375
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1. ipoTekiT uzrunvelyofili moTxovnis farglebi ............................378
2. ipoTekiT uzrunvelyofili moTxovnis cvlileba ............................381
3. ipoTekiT uzrunvelyofili moTxovnis daTmoba ...............................382
VIII. ipoTekis mowmoba ................................................................................ 385
2. ipoTekiT uzrunvelyofili valdebulebis Sesrulebis
dadastureba .......................................................................................................386
1. uzrunvelyofili valdebulebis SesrulebiT ....................................388
2. ipoTekis uflebis Sewyveta moTxovnaze an ipoTekaze uaris TqmiT ..389
3. ipoTekis uflebis Sewyveta uzrunvelyofili valdebulebis
moSliT .................................................................................................................390
darRveviT ...........................................................................................................391
dakmayofilebiT. ipoTekaris (kreditoris) moTxovnis
5.2. ipoTekis sagnis realizacia .......................................................397 5.2.1. ipoTekis sagnis realizacia iZulebiTi aRsrulebis gziT ..398 a. iZulebiTi ipoTeka .........................................................................398 b. iZulebiTi auqcioni .......................................................................399 g. nivTis iZulebiTi marTva _ sekvestri .........................................401 5.2.2. ipoTekis sagnis realizacia specialistis mier Catarebuli
winapiroba .....................................................................................405 g. pirveli auqcioni .........................................................................405 d. meore auqcioni .............................................................................406 e. mesame auqcioni .............................................................................406 v. specialistis mier Catarebuli auqcionis gauqmeba an Sewyveta ...407 z. specialistis mier Catarebuli aqucionis Sedegebi,
B. praqtikuli nawili .........................................................................................414
III. kazusebi mcire jgufebSi samuSaod ................................................. 420
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ..................................................................................424
1. rentis vali .........................................................................................................428
2. miwis vali ............................................................................................................429
samarTalSi .................................................................................................. 429
kodeqsSi ..............................................................................................................432
safrangeTis samoqalaqo kodeqsSi ..........................................................436
IV. qonebaze uflebaTa registraciis ganmaxorcielebeli
organoebi saqarTveloSi ......................................................................... 451
uflebaTa reestri ........................................................................459 1.5.3. sajaro-samarTlebrivi SezRudvis reestri da sagadasaxado
sargeblobis uflebis gadacema ...................................................467
B. praqtikuli nawili .........................................................................................469
II. kazusebi mcire jgufebSi samuSaod ................................................. 471
C. SedarebiTi samarTali ..................................................................................477
mimoxilva ...................................................................................................... 477
2. reestris warmoebis principebi ..................................................................479
3.1. safrangeTis saregistracio sistema ..........................................482 3.1.1. istoriuli mimoxilva ...............................................................482 3.1.2. safrangeTis Tanamedrove saregistracio sistema ................483 3.2. germaniis saregistracio sistema ...............................................486 3.2.1. istoriuli mimoxilva ...............................................................486 3.2.2. germaniis Tanamedrove saregistracio sistema .....................487 3.2.3. saregistracio procesi germaniaSi .........................................491
sanivTo samarTlis cneba mocemulia iuridiul mecnierebaSi, romelic aerTianebs dargisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs. evropuli iuridiuli mecnierebis msgavsad cneba sanivTo samarTali Camoyal- ibda, rogorc nivTebze pirTa batonobis momwesrigebeli samarTali1. germaniis, kerZo samarTlis gavleniT qarTul iuridiul doqtrinaSi vxvdebiT sanivTo samarTlis gansazRvrebis or variants Semdegi Si- naarsiT:
I varianti _ `sanivTo samarTali warmoadgens im normaTa er- Tobliobas, romelic awesrigebs pirTa (samarTlis subieqtTa) urTi- erTobas nivTTebTan (samarTlis obieqtebTan).~2
II varianti _ `sanivTo samarTali aris samarTlis normaTa er- Toblioba, romelic gansazRvravs sasaqonlo sikeTeebze (nivTebze) adamianTa da iuridiul pirTa batonobis pirobebs~.3
samarTlebrivi mniSvnelobiT alogikuria pirsa da nivTs Soris urTierToba. urTierToba arsebobs pirebs Soris, samarTlebrivi regulirebisas, urTierToba iRebs samarTlebrivi urTierTobis sa- xes. pirebs (fizikuri piri, iuridiuli piri) ver eqnebaT urTierTo- ba nivTebTan maTi Taviseburebebidan gamomdinare, pirebs aqvT saniv-
1 sanivTo samarTlis klasikur da Tanamedrove Sexedulebebze ix. Cases, Materials
and Text on Property Law Property Law, Sjef Van Erp and Bram Akkermans (eds.), 2012, 39-46. 2 Schwab/Prutting, Sachenrecht, 25. Aulage, 1994, 1; miTiTebulia wignSi: zoiZe, b., qa- rTuli sanivTo samarTali, 2003, 1. 3 Wanturia, l., sanivTo samarTlis ZiriTadi principebi saqarTvelos momaval samoqalaqo kodeqsSi, krebuli: `samarTlis reforma saqarTveloSi“, 1994, 24.
21
To da sxva saxis uflebebi nivTebze. sabazro ekonomikis principebze dafuZnebuli kerZo samarTali
ar krZalavs kerZo samarTlis subieqtebisaTvis ganusazRvreli ra- odenobis qonebaze sakuTrebis uflebis mopovebis SesaZleblobas. erT fizikur an iuridiul pirs SesaZlebelia imdeni sakuTrebis obi- eqti hqondes, ramdenis SeZenis finansuri SesaZleblobac aqvs. aqedan gamomdinare, nivTze mxolod faqtobrivi batonoba, rogorc sanivTo samarTlis dargis gansazRvris safuZveli, moZvelebul koncefciad unda miviCnioT.
Tanamedrove etapze gaizarda qonebis cneba da, garda nivTebi- sa, samoqalaqo urTierTobis obieqtia, aseve aramaterialuri qone- brivi sikeTe. samarTlis obieqtze samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe ar xdeba arc pirveladi sakuTrebisa da arc sxva sanivTo (qone- brivi) uflebebis warmoSoba. qonebaze sanivTo uflebebis warmo- Soba ukavSirdeba kerZo pirTa Soris samarTlebrivi urTierTobis arsebobas qonebis gadacemis mizniT. aRniSnuli Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT SesaZlebelia CamovayaliboT sanivTo samarTlis gansazRvreba:
sanivTo samarTali warmoadgens normaTa erTobliobas, romelic
adgens qonebis kategorias da aregulirebs qonebaze sanivTo ufleba-
Ta warmoSobas, Secvlasa da SewyvetasTan dakavSirebul samarTlebriv
urTierTobebs.
sanivTo (qonebrivi) samarTlebrivi urTierTobebi, pirobiTad SesaZlebelia Semdegi sistemiT davyoT:
22
• nivTebze pirTa batonoba (kavSiri) gamoixateba qonebaze saniv- To uflebaSi;
• pirebs Soris samarTlebrivi urTierToba miznad isaxavs saniv- To uflebaTa warmoSobas, Secvlas an Sewyvetas.
evropul iuridiul doqtrinaSi gamoyofen eqvs kiTxvas, romel- zedac pasuxi arsebiTad gamoxatavs sanivTo samarTlis arss:
• ra aris sanivTo samarTali? • ra aris sanivTo ufleba? • rogor SegviZlia gvqondes sanivTo ufleba? • rogor SegviZlia warmovSvaT sanivTo ufleba? • rogor SegviZlia gadavceT sanivTo ufleba? • rogor SegviZlia SevwyvitoT sanivTo ufleba?4
4 Cases, Materials and Text on Property Law Property Law, 2012, 2.
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pirveli, definiciuri Sinaarsis normebi, romelic gansazRvravs sanivTo samarTlis calkeul kategoriaTa normatiul Sinaarss, kerZod, adgens samarTlebrivi mniSvnelobiT Tu ra aris _ qoneba, uZravi nivTi, arsebiTi Semadgeneli nawili, sakuTvnebeli, nayofi, SezRuduli sanivTo uflebebi, aqcesoruli sanivTo uflebebi, nor- matiulad dadgenilia TiToeuli sanivTo uflebis cneba.
meore, imperatiuli normebi, romelic awesrigebs sanivTo uflebis warmoSobasTan, Secvlasa da SewyvetasTan dakavSirebul samarTlebriv urTierTobebs. magaliTad, uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis procesi mkacr normatiul farglebSia moqceu- li. kerZod, uZrav qonebaze sanivTo uflebis warmoSoba iTvalis- winebs pirebs Soris werilobiTi formiT dadebul garigebas, rome- lic damowmebul unda iqnes kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT. uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis saboloo etapia uflebis registraciis faqti _ sakuTrebis ufleba warmoSobilad iTvle- ba sajaro reestrSi SemZenis mesakuTred registraciis momentidan (ssk-is 183, 213, 3111). aRniSnuli wesi exeba ara marto sakuTrebis uflebis, aramed uZrav nivTebze yvela sanivTo uflebis warmoSobas. zemoT CamoTvlili TiToeuli etapi kanoniT mkacrad aris dadgeni- li da mxareebs maTi Secvla sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr ar SeuZli-
5 kerZo samarTalSi imperatiul da dispoziciur normebze ix. Wanturia l., samoqalaqo samarTlis zogadi nawili, 2011, 49-54; CaCava s., moTxovnebisa da moTxovnis safuZvlebis konkurencia, 2011, 4-6.
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aT. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom sanivTo uflebis warmoSobis Secvlisa da Sewyvetis sanivTo-samarTlebrivi imperatiuli normebi erTiani ZaliT vrceldeba nebismieri statusis subieqtze, maT Soris saxelm- wifoze. sanivTo uflebis warmoSobis, gadacemisa da Sewyvetis pro- cesSi TioToeuli piri _ fizikuri Tu iuridiuli _ Tanabar samarT- lebriv pirobebSia moqceuli.
sanivTo samarTalSi dispoziciuri normebiT, ZiriTadad, wesri- gdeba sanivTo uflebasTan dakavSirebiT mxareTa urTierTobis Si- naarsi _ ufleba-movaleobebi, valdebulebiTi Sinaarisis kategorie- bi: vada, sazRauri da a.S. sanivTo samarTlis dispoziciuri normebis safuZvelze mxareebs ufleba aqvT Secvalon kanonmdeblobiT dadge- nili wesi. magaliTad, aRnagobis xelSekrulebiT mxareebma aRnagobis vada SesaZlebelia gaiTvaliswinon 50 wliT, kanoniT gansazRvruli 99 wlis nacvlad; kanonmdeblobiT uzufruqti SesaZlebelia iyos sasyidliani an usasyidlo, am SemTxvevaSi sazRauris sakiTxi mxareTa SeTanxmebiT ganisazRvreba.
3. sanivTo samarTlis sistema
sanivTo samarTlis sistema SesaZlebelia ganvixiloT viwro da farTo gagebiT. viwro gagebiT sanivTo samarTlis sistema identuria samoqalaqo kodeqsSi Semavali sanivTo samarTalis sistemis.6 saniv- To samarTalSi gaerTianebulia Semdegi institutebi:
• qoneba; • mflobeloba; • sakuTreba; • SezRuduli sanivTo uflebebi; • moTxovnis uzrunvelyofis samarTali; • samezoblo samarTali; • sajaro reestri. farTo gagebiT sanivTo samarTlis sistema moicavs ara mxo-
lod samoqalaqo kodeqsSi sanivTo samarTlis wignSi Semaval in- stitutebs, aramed sxva normatiul aqtebSi Semaval specialur we- sebs, romelic ukavSirdeba sanivTo uflebis warmoSobas, Secvlasa
6 sanivTo samarTlis sistemaze ix. Cases, Materials and Text on Property Law Property Law, 2012, 3-4.
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4. sanivTo samarTlis wyaroebi
kanonebi kanonqvemdebare aqtebi
- saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2011 wlis 29 dekembris #509 dadgenileba saqarTvelos iusticiis samin- istros mmarTvelobis sferoSi moqmedi sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piris _ sajaro reestris erovnuli saagentos mier gaweuli momsaxurebis safasuris ganakveTebis, safasuris gadaxdevinebis wesisa da momsaxurebis vadebis damtkicebis Se- saxeb; - saqarTvelos iusticiis ministris 2004 wlis 19 ivlisis #835 brZaneba sajaro samarTlis iuridi- uli piris _ sajaro reestris erovnuli saagentos debulebis damtkicebis Sesaxeb; - saqarTvelos iusticiis ministris 2010 wlis 15 ianvris #4 brZaneba sajaro reestris Sesaxeb in- struqciis damtkicebis Taobaze; saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa 2007 wlis 31 ianv aris #150 brZanebiT damtkicebuli `instruqcia meqa- nikuri satransporto saSualebebis savaldebulo registraciis wesebis Sesaxeb~; 2007 wlis 25 ivnisis saqarTvelos Sinagan saqme- Ta ministris 892 brZanebiT 892 damtkicebu- li `ssip saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros momsaxurebis saagentos mier giravnobis regis- traciis, nasamarTlobis Sesaxeb cnobisa da meqa- nikuri satransporto saSualebis samarTlebrivi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb cnobis gacemis wesi“;
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1997 wlis 26 ivnisi saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi;
2010 wlis 31 martis „sanotaro moqmedebaTa Ses- rulebis wesis Sesaxeb“ instruqcia;
1999 wlis 22 ivnisis kanoni saavtoro da momi- jnave uflebebis Sesaxeb; 1999 wlis 5 Tebervlis kanoni sasaqonlo niSnebis Sesaxeb;
2007 wlis 8 maisis kanoni kulturuli memkvidreo- bis Sesaxeb;
1994 wlis 28 oqtombris saqarTvelos kanoni me- warmeTa Sesaxeb; 2004 wlis 1 ivnisis saqa- rTvelos kanoni saxelm- wifo reestris Sesaxeb; 2008 wlis 19 dekembris saqarTvelos kanoni saja- ro reestris Sesaxeb; 1998 wlis 24 dekembris fasiani qaRaldebis ba- zris Sesaxeb; 2009 wlis 4 dekembris notariatis Sesaxeb kanoni;
2005 wlis 16 dekembris saqarTvelos organuli kanoni adgilobrivi TviT- mmarTvelobis Sesaxeb; 2005 wlis 25 martis saqa- rTvelos kanoni adgi- lobrivi TviTmmarTveli erTeulis qonebis Sesaxeb; 2010 wlis 21 ivlisis saqa- rTvelos kanoni saxelm- wifo qonebis Se saxeb;
saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2007 wlis 24 oqtombris #233 dadgenileba TviTmmarTveli erTeulis sa- kuTrebaSi arsebuli arasasoflo-sameurneo dan- iSnulebis miwisa da saxelmwifo qonebaze (wiaRis CaTvliT) damagrebuli da saxelmwifos wilobrivi monawileobiT arsebuli sazogadoebis qonebaze damagrebuli miwebis, agreTve im miwebisa, rom- lebic saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT eqvemdebareba dasaxelebuli kategoriis qonebaze damagrebis, gansazRvrisa da gamijvnis wesis damtkicebis Sesaxeb;
2007 wlis 11 ivlisis saqa- rTvelos kanoni fiziku- ri da kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis mflo- belobaSi (sargeblobaSi) arsebul miwis nakveTebze sakuTrebis uflebis aRi- arebis Sesaxeb;
saqarTvelos prezidentis 2007 wlis 15 seqtembris #525 brZanebuleba fizikuri da kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirebis mflobelobaSi (sargebloba- Si) arsebul miwis nakveTebze sakuTrebis uflebis aRiarebis wesisa da sakuTrebis uflebis mowmobis formis damtkicebis Sesaxeb;
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sanivTo samarTali
2007 wlis 22 ivnisis saqa- rTvelos kanoni qonebis legalizebis Sesaxeb; 2007 wlis 11 ivlisis saqa- rTvelos kanoni binaT- mesakuTreTa amxanagobis Sesaxeb;
saqarTvelos prezidentis 2007 wlis 29 ianvris #73 brZanebuleba kanonieri mosargebleebisaT- vis gadasacemi araprivatizebuli sacxovrebeli da arasacxovrebeli (izolirebuli da araizoli- rebuli) farTobis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelo- bis aRmasrulebeli organoebis mier kanonieri mosargebleebisaTvis usasyidlod sakuTrebaSi ga- dacemis wesis damtkicebis Sesaxeb;
2010 wlis 17 seqtembris sagadasaxado kodeqsi; 1999 wlis 16 aprilis saaRsrulebo warmoebaTa Sesaxeb kanoni;
2008 wlis 30 seqtemberis saaRsrulebo warmoeba- Ta Sesaxeb instruqcia;
1999 wlis 22 ivnisis saqa- rTvelos tyis kodeqsi.
qonebaze sanivTo uflebis warmoSobisas, samarTlebrivi davis, sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis etapze iuristi valdebu- lia daadginos sanivTo-samarTlebrivi urTierTobis maregulirebe- li zogadi da specialuri normebi.
saqarTvelos konstitucias upiratesi iuridiuli Zala aqvs qone- basTan dakavSirebuli urTierTobis normatiulad mowesrigebisas. samoqalaqo kodeqsi, kerZo samarTlis sxva kanonebi da maTi ganmarte- bebi unda Seesabamebodes saqarTvelos konstitucias (ssk-is 2.1).
sanivTo-samarTlebrivi urTierTobis mowesrigebis an davis SemTxvevaSi erTi da imave donis samarTlis normaTa koliziis dros gamoiyeneba specialuri da ufro axali kanoni. Tu sanivTo-samarT- lebrivi urTierTobisas kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebul zogad normebsa da specialur normebs Soris arsebobs kolizia, am SemTxvevaSi upi- ratesoba eniWeba specialur normebs (ssk-is 2.2). magaliTad, samoqa- laqo kodeqsSi 186-e muxli exeba moZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis wesebs, Tumca meqanikur satransporto saSualebebze sa- kuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis specialuri wesebi dadgenilia sxva saxis normatiuli aqtiT.7 sanivTo urTierTobebis mosawesrigeblad kanonqvemdebare normatiuli aqtebi gamoiyeneba mxolod maSin, Tu
7 saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa ministris 2007 wlis 31 ianvaris 150 brZaneba `meqanikuri satransporto saSualebebis savaldebulo registraciis wesebis Sesaxeb.
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isini avseben kanonis normebs. Tu es aqtebi ewinaaRmdegeba kanons, moqmedebs kanoni (ssk-is 2.3). sanivTo samarTalSi Cveuleba, rogorc samarTlis wyaro ar ganixileba (ssk-is 2.4).
sanivTo-samarTlebrivi davis ganxilvisas pirebi xSirad aRiare- ben, rom maT ar icodnen uflebis savaldebulo wesiT registraciis aucileblobis Taobaze, anda is, rom kanonmdeblobiT SesaZlebelia uZravi nivTis mesakuTris Taobaze informaciis miReba sajaro re- estridan. kanonis arcodna an misi arasaTanadod gageba ar SeiZleba iyos kanonis gamouyeneblobis anda am kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli pa- suxismgeblobisagan ganTavisuflebis safuZveli (ssk-is 3.2). Tu uZ- ravi qonebis SeZenis etapze pirma ar Seamowma qonebaze uflebrivi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb sajaro reestrSi arsebuli monacemebi, Semd- gomi pretenzia, rom man ar icoda uZrav nivTze sajaro SezRudvebis an gardamavali uflebebis Taobaze, mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba. analo- giuri wesi vrceldeba yvela saxis qonebaze, romelzedac uflebebi da sajaro SezRudvebi reestrSi registraciis gziT warmoiSoba.
kanoni kargavs Zalas, Tu amis Sesaxeb pirdapir uTiTebs axa- li kanoni, an Zveli ewinaaRmdegeba axals, an axali kanoni moicavs ZveliT mowesrigebul urTierTobas, anda, Tu aRar arsebobs is urTi erToba, romelsac awesrigebda kanoni (ssk-is 3.3). saqarTvelos 1997 wlis samoqalaqo kodeqsis amoqmedebis dRidan Zaladakargu- lad gamocxadda yvela kanonqvemdebare normatiuli aqti, romlebic ar Seesabameboda saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqss (ssk-is 1506.1). Tumca samoqalaqo kodeqsis calkeuli muxlebis Tanaxmad, 1997 wlis samoqalaqo kodeqsis normebi vrceldeba im samarTlebriv urT- ierTobebzec, romelic mis miRebamde (ZalaSi Sesvlamde) warmoiS- va. magali Tad, fizikur pirTa kanonier sargeblobaSi arsebuli mi- wis nakveTebi, romlebzedac individualuri saxlebia ganlagebuli, samoqalaqo kodeqsis amoqmedebidan iTvleba am pirTa…