Spa springs natural bioactives from Brazil - lazzerini 2013

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The natural surrounds and resources wrapping hot or mineral springs belong to sustainable matter involving governance and strategic planning of public health, environment, welfare, tourism and mining sectors. Noted it, through the current Brazilian policy demand: social thermalism/hydrotherapy/crenotherapy selected like complementary alternative medicine (CAM) by health ministry law MS 971/2006 (PNPIC), hydro-thermal therapy qualifying DNPM (MME Ordinance 127/2011 and MME 337/2002), health and wellness tourism formally oriented by tourism ministry and environmental management groundwater resources (Resolution MME / CONAMA 396/2008 and MME / CNRH 107/2010). Whereas as fresh potable reserves or potential mineral aquatic strategic deposits, the main biologically active components (BAC) were identified, with their minimum levels needed to related health benefits. Similar to conventional mining prospection, these “cut off grade” detection, at natural occurrences from Brazil, was the major goal in this work. The bibliographic systematic review allowed identify the main bioactive substances (BAC) related to springs sources of elements enougth or proven as health beneficial and at which indications. Wards after, it was performed a georeferenced database with these same variables (BAC) from Brazilian springs. Overlays all through thematic maps assisted in geographical and geological evaluations, whereas, at the end, statistical comparisons filtered target selection at all. The total 60 possible natural BAC and its minimum values for efficacy globally reviewed and established were detected at least one BAC occurrence from 703 mineral springs at 525 Brazilian cities. The arguments utilized were important in demonstrating the abundant and diverse existence of this endowment, where its potential health applications are virtually unknown today. Keywords: therapeutic natural resource, mineral water, hot spring, SPA, BAC (“biologically active compound/component”), balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, health resort, thermalism.

Text of Spa springs natural bioactives from Brazil - lazzerini 2013

  • 1. UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL PAULISTA JLIO DE MESQUITA FILHO INSTITUTO DE GEOCINCIAS E CINCIAS EXATAS Fbio Tadeu Lazzerini MINERAL WATERS AND HOT SPRINGS FROM BRAZIL: Natural Biologically Active Compounds (BAC) FONTES HIDROMINERAIS DO BRASIL: Componentes Biologicamente Ativos (BAC) Naturais GEOLOGIA REGIONAL Rio Claro-SP-BRA 2013

2. UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL PAULISTA JLIO DE MESQUITA FILHO INSTITUTO DE GEOCINCIAS E CINCIAS EXATAS 3. Biologically Active Compounds (BAC) Natural From BRAZILIAN MINERAL WATERS AND HOT SPRINGS By Fbio Tadeu Lazzerini Thesis work submitted in accordance with postgraduate program requirements for the doctor degree in the Regional Geology subject, at the Universidade Estadual Paulista - Jlio de Mesquita Filho". Examining commission: ____________________________________ Supervisor - Prof. Dr. Daniel Marcos Bonotto (IG-UNESP-RIO CLARO) ____________________________________ Profa. Dra. Dejanira Franceschi de Angelis (IB-UNESP-RIO CLARO) _____________________________________ Prof. Dr. Jairo Roberto Jimnez Rueda (IG-UNESP-RIO CLARO) _____________________________________ Prof. Dr. Jorge Luis Nepomuceno de Lima (UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE RONDNIA) ____________________________________ Prof. Dr. Daniel Figueira de Barros (CENTRO SALESIANO DE SO PAULO-AMERICANA) Rio Claro - SP - BRA 2013 4. ABSTRACT The natural surrounds and resources wrapping hot or mineral springs belong to sustainable matter involving governance and strategic planning of public health, environment, welfare, tourism and mining sectors. Noted it, through the current Brazilian policy demand: social thermalism/hydrotherapy/crenotherapy selected like complementary alternative medicine (CAM) by health ministry law MS 971/2006 (PNPIC), hydro-thermal therapy qualifying DNPM (MME Ordinance 127/2011 and MME 337/2002), health and wellness tourism formally oriented by tourism ministry and environmental management groundwater resources (Resolution MME / CONAMA 396/2008 and MME / CNRH 107/2010). Whereas as fresh potable reserves or potential mineral aquatic strategic deposits, the main biologically active components (BAC) were identified, with their minimum levels needed to related health benefits. Similar to conventional mining prospection, these cut off grade detection, at natural occurrences from Brazil, was the major goal in this work. The bibliographic systematic review allowed identify the main bioactive substances (BAC) related to springs sources of elements enougth or proven as health beneficial and at which indications. Wards after, it was performed a georeferenced database with these same variables (BAC) from Brazilian springs. Overlays all through thematic maps assisted in geographical and geological evaluations, whereas, at the end, statistical comparisons filtered target selection at all. The total 60 possible natural BAC and its minimum values for efficacy globally reviewed and established were detected at least one BAC occurrence from 703 mineral springs at 525 Brazilian cities. The arguments utilized were important in demonstrating the abundant and diverse existence of this endowment, where its potential health applications are virtually unknown today. Keywords: therapeutic natural resource, mineral water, hot spring, SPA, BAC (biologically active compound/component), balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, health resort, thermalism. 5. RESUMO Os ambientes e recursos naturais de fontes hidrominerais fazem parte da governana e planejamento estratgico na sade pblica, meio ambiente, bem estar, turismo e minerao, sendo a atual demanda poltica nacional observada em: termalismo social/crenoterapia em medicina complementar (CAM) atravs da Portaria MS 971/2006 (PNPIC), hidro-balneoterapia classificatria DNPM (Portaria MME 127/2011 e MME 337/2002), turismo de sade e bem estar orientado formalmente pelo ministrio do turismo e gesto ambiental de recursos hdricos subterrneos (Resoluo MME/CONAMA 396/2008 e MME/CNRH 107/2010). Considerando as fontes hidrominerais como jazidas, para sua prospeco foram identificados os principais componentes biologicamente ativos (Biologically Active Components ou BAC), com seus teores mnimos necessrios e em quais tipos de benefcios sade. Encontrar tais ocorrncias naturais no Brasil foi a principal meta deste trabalho. Por intermdio de compilao bibliogrfica foram identificados os principais bioativos (BAC) relacionados s fontes hidrominerais, seus valores mnimos considerados ou comprovados como benficos e para quais indicaes de sade. Depois foi confeccionado banco de dados georreferenciado das ocorrncias Brasileiras contendo informaes para os mesmos BAC. Sobreposies de mapas temticos auxiliaram em avaliaes geogrficas e geolgicas e, finalmente, comparaes estatsticas filtraram a seleo de alvos. Com 60 possveis BAC e seus valores mnimos para eficcia estabelecidos internacionalmente, em 703 fontes hidrominerais de 525 municpios do pas, foi identificada ao menos uma ocorrncia desta dotao natural (BAC). Os argumentos utilizados foram importantes na demonstrao da existncia abundante e diversificada destes tipos de jazidas no Brasil, onde suas potenciais aplicaes so praticamente desconhecidas na atualidade. Palavras-chave: recurso natural teraputico, gua mineral, fonte termal, SPA, crenologia, estncia hidromineral, turismo de sade, termalismo, balneoterapia, componente bioativo, ensaio clnico. 6. SUMMARY PART I - GENERALITIES CHAPTER 1 MINERAL WATER, HOT SPRING AND SPA THERAPY 15 1.1.Introduction 15 1.2.Objective 19 1.3.Subject Rationale 20 CHAPTER2-SUPPORTING FEATURES 25 2.1.Traditional History 25 2.2.Correlated Legislation 26 2.3.Economic Interests 28 2.4.Social Benefits 31 2.5.Environmental Advantages 32 CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY 34 CHAPTER 4 - STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES 41 4.1.International 41 4.2.Brazil 42 PART II BAC (BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS) CHAPTER 5 - ENVIRONMENT, BIOCLIMATE AND STREAMFLOW 44 5.1.Place Settings (LOC) 44 5.2.Climate and Relieves Issues (CLIMALT) 51 5.3.Discharge Bulk (flow) 59 CHAPTER 6 - TEMPERATURES 63 6.1.Hydrothermalism 65 6.2.Caloric Animation (hot spring) 71 6.3.Geothermal Potential (geot) 72 6.4.Hyperthermal (HIPT) 73 6.5.Isothermal (ISTM) 74 6.6.Hypothermal or Hot (term) 76 6.7.Tepid (warm) 77 6.8.Cool (cold) 78 CHAPTER 7 GASES AND EMANATIONS 79 7.1.Radon Scattered at Source ( 222 Rngas) 80 7.2.Thoron Released at Fountain ( 220 Rn) 83 7.3.Hororradioactivity (HORO) 85 7.4.Radon Water Dissolved (222 Rn) 88 7. 7.4.1.Dissolved Radon at Bath ( 222 Rn) 90 7.5.Hydrogen Sulfide Water Dissolved (H2S) 92 7.6.Carbon Dioxide Water Dissolved (CO2) 96 7.7.Oxygen Water Dissolved (O2) 100 CHAPTER 8 BASIC WATER CHEMISTRY 103 8.1.Potential Hydrogen (pH) 103 8.1.1.pH Antioxidative (ANTIOX) 105 8.1.2.pH Alkaline (ALK) 107 8.1.3.pH Lightly Alkaline (alk) 108 8.1.4.pH Neutral (N) 110 8.1.5.pH Acid (ac) 111 8.2.Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 112 8.2.1.TDS Faintest (diet) 119 8.2.2.TDS Oligomineral (OLIG) 123 8.2.3.TDS Medium Mineralized (MEIO) 126 8.2.4.TDS Mineral (STD) 129 8.2.5.TDS Isotonic (ISTN) 133 8.2.6.TDS Hypertonic (tals) 135 8.3.Hardness (Dur) 138 8.4.Silicon (Si) 140 CHAPTER 9 - ELECTROLYTES MACROELEMENTS 144 9.1.Main Anions 144 9.1.1.Chloride (Cl- ) 144 9.1.2.Bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) 147 9.1.3.Sulfate (SO4 2- ) 151 9.2.Main Cations 154 9.2.1.Sodium (Na + ) 154 9.2.2.Calcium (Ca 2+ ) 157 9.2.3.Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) 161 9.2.4.Potassium (K+ ) 163 CHAPTER 10 - TRACE ELEMENTS 167 10.1.Aluminum (Al3+ ) 167 10.2.Barium (Ba 2+ ) 168 10.3.Boron (B 3- ) 170 10.4.Bromine (Br- ) 172 8. 10.5.Copper (Cu 2+ ) 174 10.6.Strontium (Sr2+ ) 176 10.7.Total Iron (Fe) 178 10.8.Fluoride (F- ) 181 10.9.Lithium (Li + ) 182 10.10.Manganese (Mn 2+ ) 184 10.11.Molybdenum (Mo2+ ) 186 10.12.Selenium (Se 2+ ) 187 10.13.Vanadium (V2+ ) 189 10.14.Zinc (Zn 2+ ) 190 CHAPTER 11 - HYDROGEOLOGY AND HYDROCHEMISTRY 194 CHAPTER 12 FINAL REMARKS 203 13.BIBLIOGRAPHY 208 13.1.REFERENCE VALUES OF BAC PARAMETERS 269 13.2.REFERENCE SOURCES SPRINGS BRAZIL 292 ANNEX 304 I - GLOSSARY 304 II - TABLES 312 III - MAPS and DIAGRAMS 334 9. CHAPTER 1 MINERAL WATER, HOT SPRING AND SPA THERAPY 1.1. Introduction By recent observations in young star " TW Hydrae," observed a ring aqueous major, may indicate that the water has been aggregated to the Earth since the early stages of accretion, when dust grains and raw frozen were impacting the Solar Nebula, little by little, concentrating a large amount of ice to then form the large oceanic reservoir (Javoy, 2005; Gizis and Riaz, 2008). The particular atmosphere of hydrogen bonding in water provides unique properties and anomalous compared to other natural materials on the planet. As gas is one of the lighter molecules, as fluid is much denser than expected and how solid is much lighter than normally compared to its liquid form (DeMeo, 2011). The water molecule is smaller, less bulky and lighter than most other natural molecules, therefore, the solid and liquid states have a higher power density and cohesiveness (Durbin, 2012). The waters will be quoted preferably in the plural, because the great diversity in their shapes and compositions of occurrences in nature. Such hydrodiversity (GLOSSARY) is a term that has been used to differentiate surface water resources (Mendiondo and Tucci, 1997; Oudin et al., 2008), valuing them for better preservation (Graf, 2001; sismic and Belij, 2008) or exemplify content for environmental education, as in hydro poles of Portugal (Machado and Oliveira, 2010). The peculiar features occur where the springs are related to the origin of life, evolution, differentiation between species and genetic evolution. The "pre-biotic primordial soup" comes from similar complex aqueous environments due to their dynamic properties of fluid and solvents. Flow volatility and allow exchanges caloric mixtures and reactions that have shaped the planet and resulted in biological activity (Sverjensky and Hazen, 2010). Stromatolites and other microbial fossils documenting t