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report on airborne internet
DHOLE PATIL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING PUNE-412047
Sijo JacobGuided by
Prof. Priyanka Kedar DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERINGYear # 2013 - 2014 DHOLE PATIL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,PUNE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERINGCERTIFICATE
This is to certify that student Mr./Ms. is studying in TE Computer Engineering has successfully completed the seminar titled SEMINAR TITLE. This study is a partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Engineering of the University of Pune, PUNE during the academic year 2012-2013. Prof. XYZ
Prof. Arati Dandavate Guide
Head of the DepartmentPrincipal
[no need of name]ACKNOWLEDGEMENT< Times new Roman, 12, sentence case , content by students>
I have made this report file on the topic Airborne Internet , I have tried my best to elucidate all the relevant detail to the topic to be included in the report. While in the beginning I have tried to give a general view about this topic.
My efforts and wholehearted co-corporation of each and everyone has ended on a successful note. I express my sincere gratitude to Mrs. Priyanka Kedar who assisted me throughout the preparation of this topic. I thank her for providing me the reinforcement, confidence and most importantly the track for the topic whenever I needed it.
(Name of student)
Airborne Internet Consortium concept
The need for an Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is based on the lack of a common organization for the aviation industry to leverage commercial Internet technologies. The advent of new digital communication and processing technologies is radically changing the way commercial businesses and social communications are being conducted. It would appear that aviation is the last industrial segment to embrace the latest digital and Internet technologies.
The purpose of the AIC is to accelerate the rate of adoption and absorption of digital and Internet technologies into aviation. The AIC will provide the necessary research, certification and guidance methodologies, advocacy, and influence in order to create the necessary technologies, policies, and regulations required for the use of commercial Internet protocols in aviation.
With the availability of Internet technologies to all sectors of aviation from commercial to general aviation, from the flight deck to the cabin, and from flight-related tasks to entertainment, dramatic increases in communication and transportation mobility will be achieved. Internet protocols and services will make aircraft easier to fly with more situational awareness, safety, and security. Also, the productivity of passengers will be increased because the growth in connectivity will allow people in transit to use otherwise unproductive time.
Once this increased communication and transportation mobility is implemented, new markets will be created and established markets will expand at accelerated rateswhich will increase investments in economic development and create jobs.
To encourage the creation and growth of markets, the Airborne Internet Consortium must identify and develop technologies that will scale. The commercial Internets success has not only been due to its ability to increase communication mobility, it has also occured because of its ability to scale exponentially. The Internet has been able to meet the demands placed on it by not having a fixed network topology or architecture. For this reason, part of the AIC effort will include modern network theory and principles so that the Airborne Internet will retain the resilience of the commercial Internet and not fail to scale to events such as extraordinary traffic volume, disruptive weather, or exponentional increases in user volume.
The power of future networked system architectures to transform aviation will enable scalable airspace and aircraft architectures, flexible ground infrastructures, and new approaches to safety and security in the system of systems known as Aviation. To insure that the Airborne Internet Consortium is aware of network theory developments in aviation, the AIC will maintain a close working relationship with the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) .
ITABLE OF CONTENTSChapter NoTopicPage No.
Chapter 2LITERATURE SURVEY
1.4Journal Papers(If present)
Chapter 3SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Chapter 4TECHNOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION
Chapter 6ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Chapter 7CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
[1) remove borders of Table 2) Contents can be modified according to requirement, only concern is to maintain flow and to cover all topics of seminar]
List of FiguresFigure No.Title of FigurePage No.
1.1Conceptual block diagram of LAN15
List of TableFigure No.Title of FigurePage No.
1.4Speedup performance readings6
The word on just about every Internet user's lips these days is "broadband." We have so much more data to send and download today, including audio files, video files and photos, that it's clogging our wimpy modems. Many Internet users are switching to cable modems and digital subscriber lines (DSLs) to increase their bandwidth. There's also a new type of service being developed that will take broadband into the air. In this paper, we'll learn about the future of the Airborne Internet. We'll take a look at the networks in development, the aircraft and how consumers may use this technology.
Land-based lines are limited physically in how much data they can deliver because of the diameter of the cable or phone line. In an airborne Internet, there is no such physical limitation, enabling a broader capacity. The airborne Internet will function much like satellite-based Internet access, but without the time delay. The airborne Internet will actually be used to compliment the satellite and ground-based networks, not replace them. These airborne networks will overcome the last-mile barriers facing conventional Internet access options.
CHAPTER IIWHAT IS AIRBORNE INTERNET?
2.1 Airborne Internet
Also known simply as AI, the airborne Internet is a communication network that is designed to include nodes or points of contact or interaction on different types of aircraft. First conceived in 1999, the idea of an Internet communications and delivery system that is air-based for use by passengers and crew on airplanes has undergone some revisions over the years, especially as technology continued to advance during the first decade of the 21st century. In additional to consumer applications, the airborne Internet is also perceived as being a means of creating a communications and information network that could be used in emergency situations or as part of military strategies.
The idea behind the airborne Internet is to eliminate the need for any type of communications infrastructure that is land-based. Instead, the equipment needed to create the network would be installed in aircraft of different types, essentially making it possible to maintain communications and information flow even if key facilities located on the ground were rendered inoperable. At the same time, the air-based Internet would have full capability to interact with land-based facilities when and as practical. 2.2 Mission & Benefits2.2.1 AIC MissionThe mission of the Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is to define, develop, and promote the common system elements necessary to deploy comprehensive aviation-based digital datalink capabilities throughout the nation using evolving Internet technologies.
2.2.2 Public and Private Benefits
The AIC intends to undertake its research through collaborations with the public sector in a manner that will:
Enable a safer, more secure, more cost efficient global airspace system by eliminating communications as a constraint on the economic viability of aviation related applications
Facilitate collaborative research and development in the field of aviation communications
Develop open systems architecture and standards for aviation digital communications
Foster and promote general purpose, multi-application, scalable data channel protocols in aviation
Develop intellectual content to guide public and private investment in aviation digital communications
Promote international adoption of open systems architecture, standards, information management structures, and protocols for aviation digital communications
Foster use of advanced aviation digital communications technology for public security
3.1. Breaking the information barrierIn 1903, the Wright brothers made aviation history when they broke the chains of gravity holding man to the earth. In 1947, Chuck Yeager ushered in a new age of flight when he broke the sound barrier. In 1999, Ralph Yost from the FAA Technical Center broke the information barrier when he conceived of a system in which aircraft would be connected with a scalable, general purpose, and multi-application aviation data channel and treated as nodes in a network. The Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is helping to advocate this concept, which is known as the Airborne Internet. 3.2 The beginningIn July of 1999, NASA Langley Research Center held a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Planning Conference. SATS is an idea being developed by NASA in which small aircraft and the nation's 5,000+ small airports will be utilized for public transportation.
In one of the conference sessions, it was envisioned that in order for SATS to be implemented, a broadband radio would be required to connect the aircraft. It would carry all communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) data over a single wide-bandwidth channelunlike the current approach where many different radios and frequencies are used to provide CNS functions. During the session, Ralph Yost made an analogy between aircraft and devices on a computer network. When the entire conference was briefed on the results of the session, Dr. Bruce Holmes of NASA described the concept of a peer-to-peer aircraft network connected with broadband radios as an Airborne Internet.
3.3 The airborneinternet.com website
In 2002, Ralph Yost created a website containing Airborne Internet resources such as white papers, briefings, and reports. The website also covered news and events relevant to the development of the Airborne Internet. Many of the materials originally available on the airborneinternet.com website are located in the Resources section of this website.
3.4 The AICG
In January 2003, representatives from government, universities, and industry held the first of many Airborne Internet Collaboration Group (AICG) meetings. The AICG explored the benefits of public and private sector collaboration on the development of a systems architecture based on open standards and Internet protocols for aviation communications.
3.5 The CIE
During the AICG meetings, several members of the computer industry introduced the concept of using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) XML Web Service protocols on the Airborne Internet. The shared information space which would be created is known as the Collaborative Information Environment (CIE).
3.6 The AIC
Companies that participated in the AICG formed the Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC), which officially began operations in December 2004. If you are interested in becoming a member, please see information on how to join the AIC.CHAPTER IVOBJECTIVES & OUTPUTS
4.1 AIC Objectives:
Create Airborne Internet (AI) guiding principles
Create an Airborne Internet Operational Concept
Create and evaluate Airborne Internet "system of systems" architectures
Influence, tailor, or create standards for the Airborne Internet
Demonstrate the capability of an Airborne Internet4.2 AIC Outputs:
Research Studies All research reports are copyrighted and treated as shared datarights among Principal members:
National Airborne Internet operations concept
Standards and Guidelines Reports All standards and guidelines reports prepared for release into the public domain:
National Airborne Internet standards
Guidelines for Airborne Internet product certification
Standards Setting Liaison All ongoing standards liaison services provided to members as long as necessary to achieve the targeted goals for influencing and/or creating standards:
Standards liaison working groups
5.1 Legal Vehicle
The Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is a Delaware non-profit corporation chartered to undertake science, research, and education activities. The AIC is registered as a tax-exempt 501(c)3 organization.
5.2 Governance Structure
The AIC governance structure consists of a founding board of three members for one year, to be expanded to a seven member board of directors elected from among the membership. Directors are elected only from among the Principal members of any given class.
5.3 Timeline of Activities
The Airborne Internet Consortium will startup and operate in three phases. The phases approach is designed to match the timing and availability of support from various sources:
Phase 1 Startup over a period of one year after the financial and legal commitment of founders
Phase 2 Definition of concepts at sufficient level to fully secure resources for complete research
Phase 3 Full research resulting in standards and certification guidelines
5.4 Operating Budget:
Phase 1 Startup:
Research $300,000 goal
Management and Operations $85,000 minimum to $115,000 maximum
Phase 2 Definition of concepts:
Research $2,500,000 goal
Management and Operations $215,500 to $245,000
Phase 3 Full research:
Research $26,500,000 goal
Management and Operations $1,850,000 to $2,275,000
5.5 Resources Strategy
The AICs research and project management functions will be supported by a combination of member contributions and the solicitation of government (Federal and state) program funding. The Consortiums business management will be supported by member dues and cost recovery on project overhead.
5.6 Works of Airborne Internet
The concept seems pretty simple, have a plane flying over head in a pattern carrying long range 4g transmitters, transmitting internet across the city. Looking into the trigonometry in this, it could potentially cover an area of up to 30-40 miles. I ran some numbers, and to have 2 Beechcraft Barons flying so that one was always in the air, it would cost $5,000 a day roughly. If you had 5,000 customers, paying $30 a month for high-speed internet from this service, then doesn't this business venture sound like it has potential? A used aircraft would cost around $250,000 and around $50,000 to outfit it with the transmitters roughly, meaning the total cost would be around $300,000 to cover a city (50 mile radius) with this, currently, cell phone towers cost 150,000 to 200,000 and in cities, only cover a few miles. Doesn't this seem plausible? This plane would fly a few miles over the Earth, which is about how far away some cell towers are from consumers, and there would be air between the plane and the receiver, not buildings and walls, extending the range. In order for consumers to pick up on the signal, a home base station would be used that could power an antenna to provide high upload and download speeds. The aircraft would essentially be a "wireless router" in the sky, transmitting all of the data to a base station that has a backbone connection to the internet.
The airborne Internet won't be completely wireless. There will be ground-based components to any type of airborne Internet network.
The consumers will have to install an antenna on their home or business in order to receive signals from the network hub overhead.
The networks will also work with established Internet Service Providers (ISPs), who will provide their high-capacity terminals for use by the network.
These ISPs have a fiber point of presence -- their fiber optics is already set up. What the airborne Internet will do is provide an infrastructure that can reach areas that don't have broadband cables and wires.
CHAPTER VIIIMPLEMENTATION SYSTEMS & APPLICATION
7.1 Three companies are planning to provide Airborne Internet by placing aircrafts in fixed patterns over hundreds of cities.
7.1.1 Angel TechnologiesAngel Technologies Corporation, with headquarters in St. Louis, Mo., is a privately-held wireless communications company using proprietary High Altitude Long Operation (HALO) aircraft to deliver services worldwide. Augmenting terrestrial towers and orbiting satellites, Angel's HALO aircraft will fly fixed patterns in the stratosphere above major cities to deliver metropolitan wireless services at lower cost, with increased flexibility and improved quality of service.
7.1.2 Sky Station InternationalSky Station International has pioneered technology that utilizes a solar powered lighter-than-air platform held geostationary in the stratosphere to provide high capacity wireless telecommunications services to large metropolitan regions. Worldwide regulatory approval for the use of stratospheric platforms was granted by the ITU inNovember 1997 and by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) earlier that year.
7.1.3 Aero Vironment With NASA
AeroVironment Inc is a technology company in Monrovia, California, and Simi
Valley, California, that is primarily involved in energy systems, electric vehicle systems, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Paul B. MacCready, Jr., a famous designer of human powered aircraft, founded the company in 1971. The company is probably most well-known for developing a series of lightweight human-powered and then solarpowered vehicles.
Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel to aviation. In doing so, A.I. has the potential to provide significant cost savings for aircraft operators and the FAA, as it allows the consolidation of many functions into a common data channel. A primary application for A.I. is to track aircraft for the air traffic control system. Many other applications can utilize the same A.I. data channel. The applications available are only limited by the bandwidth available.
A.I. began as a supporting technology for NASAs Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). But there is no reason that A.I. should be limited to SATS-class aircraft. All of aviation, and even transportation, has the potential to benefit from A.I.
The principle behind the A.I. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data channel to aircraft. Establishing the general purpose, multi-application digital data channel connection to the aircraft is analogous to the connection of a desktop computer to its local area network, or even the wide area network we call the Internet. But aircraft are mobile objects. Therefore, mobile routing is required to maintain the data channel connectivity while the aircraft moves from region to region.
The desktop computer, whether used in the office or the home, runs many different applications that can all use the same data channel. The applications are designed around the Internet Protocol (IP) standard to take advantage of the existence of the network connection to the computer. Airborne Internet is built upon the same model. A.I. will provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel that numerous applications can use. By combining application and data functionality over a common data channel, aviation has the potential to significantly reduce costs for equipage on the ground and in the aircraft.CHAPTER VIII
ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRBORNE INTERNET
8.1 Architecture defines the structural and collaborative relationships of system components. Often described using views (e.g., functional, component, implementation, temporal, user), the architecture provides information to guide system and software developers during initial development and inevitable system improvement activities. In addition to defining the functional and physical relationships between system components, an architecture often provides design guidance in an attempt to achieve other desirable objectives such as efficient resource utilization, incremental development, verifiability, use of COTS products, ease of maintenance, and system extensibility. 8.2 Developing a SATS Airborne Internet architecture consists of the following steps:
1) Understand the SATS operational concepts
2) Define system level requirements
3) Investigate and evaluate the external environment
4) Identify trends and issues that must be addressed
5) Apply modern system design techniques, i.e., design patterns to identify key design elements
6) Document the result and submit for review
8.2.1 Understand the SATS operational concepts Everyone tends to relate to SATS in a unique way. It is more a new way of thinking about air transportation than a technical concept that beckons to be explored. This leads to a variety of definitions of what SATS is or should be. To bound the AI architecture problem, we developed a set of system operation assumptions. Samplings of these key assumptions are listed below:
Pilot Until such time as highly automated systems can be fully tested and certified, SATS aircraft will have at least one qualified, instrument rated pilot on board. Because of the level of automation on board, the SATS system will enable this pilot to be much more proficient and able to fly in nearly all weather conditions into a large number of minimally equipped airports.
Airspace SATS aircraft will share airspace with non-SATS aircraft. This implies a minimum level of system compatibility and equipage in both SATS and non-SATS aircraft. SATS aircraft en route will operate in Class A airspace, SATS aircraft landing at small/medium sized airports will operate in Class C, D, or E airspace.
Avionics in addition to the minimum set of avionics required of normal IFR aircraft, SATS aircraft will have on board additional avionics equipment to enable the pilot to operate in near all-weather situations. If SATS is to be prototyped in 2005 and operational in 2025, this equipment will need to be compatible with systems used by commercial and general aviation airports to not require expensive new ground support systems not currently planned by the FAA.
Flight rules to meet its objectives, SATS aircraft will need to be able to access small and medium sized airports. These same airports currently support VFR traffic in addition to IFR traffic. Flight rules will have to be modified to support a mixture of IFR, VFR and SATS traffic.
8.2.2 Define system level requirements Specific, verifiable requirements for a SATS communications system must be developed. The communications system is unique in that it is both an end system and an enabling infrastructure. As an end system it must provide pilot-controller, pilot-pilot, and pilot-flight operations communications. As an enabling infrastructure it must support applications associated with navigation, surveillance, and other functions.
Requirements need to be developed in the traditional areas of communication, navigation, and surveillance, including both avionics and ground infrastructure, consistent with the infrastructure defined in the task below. System level requirements also need to be developed for onboard flight management and sensor/actuator systems capable of providing the level of support necessary to achieve the SATS goal of two crew performance with a single crew member. Other requirements will include support for passenger support systems
8.2.3 Investigate and evaluate the external environment SATS, although a revolutionary transportation concept will have to work within the National Airspace System (NAS). This is true both during SATS prototyping in 2005 and during full-scale development, in 2025. The NAS itself is evolving necessitating developing an understanding of the capabilities of NAS over time. This can be very tricky as the NAS is subject to many forces that are political, not technical, and as such is difficult to predict. For example, there are currently three competing communication technologies to provide aircraft-aircraft position reporting. Clearly, there is agreement that position reporting is desirable, but which technological approach will survive is like trying to choose between VHS and Betamax before the marketplace has spoken.
Identify trends and issues that must be addressed To be successful, SATS must function within the context of technology evolution and systems development. We present a summary of some of the trends and issues in the next section of this paper.
8.2.4 Apply modern system design techniques SATS presents an ideal opportunity to apply object-oriented design techniques for the collection, analysis and documentation of system architecture. Elements of the resulting design include:
Design patterns to identify key components of the design
Layers of abstraction to minimize coupling of user level functionality to implementation details
Exploitation of natural cohesiveness, common software functional patterns
Communications protocols between major functional objects
8.2.5 Document the result and submit for review Peer review is a vital step in the development of an architecture for a system as complex and safety critical as a new aircraft transportation system.
Thus this airborne internet technology has a wide range of utilities in the field of aviation services like aircraft monitoring and air traffic management, weather information etc., and also provides an opportunity for the passengers to access the internet at very high altitudes that is, in the aero-planes and other conventional services.
This new technology, has already begun creating splashes in the industry.
With the advent of Airborne Internet the remote sections of the world may get into main frame development.
However, the technology still has to undergo testing of potential network performance. Facility to increase the antennas to control the traffic needs to be provided.
Economic feasibility of the project also needs a review. Thus it is a further new trend in this mobile world which is establishing the connectivity by building network in the air.
Format of SEMINAR Report
1. Paper Size : A- 4 size bond paper
2. Margins :
Top : 1 (1 inch=2.54cm)
Bottom : 1.15 (2.86cm)
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3.Line Spacing : 1.5 line 4. Title of Chapter
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by 1 cm. ( Except first paragraph *)
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9. Page Numbering ( Centered)
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For Remaining Pages
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Publication details & URL must be in Italics Format :
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1. Seminar Report must be spiral bind.2. One copy of the report should be submitted to the college. One Copy to the respective guide is optional. Every student may have his or her own additional copy.3. Report must be written in your own English language.4. Abstract should be to page5. Report must be submitted at the time of presentation (Two copies).
6. Cover Page, First Page, Specimen Copyare only for students instruction, they are not be printed in the report. 7. Sequence of pages to be followed as:
Total report of 30 pages to 40 pages in which 25 to 35 pages will be actual content ( for example if total 30 page report , 25 pages will be actual content)