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Sijo Jacob

Guided by

Prof. Priyanka Kedar


Year # 2013 - 2014

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This is to certify that student Mr./Ms. ……………………………………………………… is studying in TE

Computer Engineering has successfully completed the seminar titled “SEMINAR TITLE”.

This study is a partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Computer

Engineering of the University of Pune, PUNE during the academic year 2012-2013.

Prof. XYZ Prof. Arati Dandavate

Guide Head of the



[no need of name]

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< Times new Roman, 12, sentence case , content by students>

I have made this report file on the topic Airborne Internet , I have tried my best to elucidate

all the relevant detail to the topic to be included in the report. While in the beginning I have

tried to give a general view about this topic.

My efforts and wholehearted co-corporation of each and everyone has ended on a successful

note. I express my sincere gratitude to Mrs. Priyanka Kedar who assisted me throughout the

preparation of this topic. I thank her for providing me the reinforcement, confidence and most

importantly the track for the topic whenever I needed it.

(Name of student)

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Airborne Internet Consortium concept


The need for an Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is based on the lack of a common

organization for the aviation industry to leverage commercial Internet technologies. The advent

of new digital communication and processing technologies is radically changing the way

commercial businesses and social communications are being conducted. It would appear that

aviation is the last industrial segment to embrace the latest digital and Internet technologies.


The purpose of the AIC is to accelerate the rate of adoption and absorption of digital and

Internet technologies into aviation. The AIC will provide the necessary research, certification

and guidance methodologies, advocacy, and influence in order to create the necessary

technologies, policies, and regulations required for the use of commercial Internet protocols in



With the availability of Internet technologies to all sectors of aviation from commercial to

general aviation, from the flight deck to the cabin, and from flight-related tasks to

entertainment, dramatic increases in communication and transportation mobility will be

achieved. Internet protocols and services will make aircraft easier to fly with more situational

awareness, safety, and security. Also, the productivity of passengers will be increased because

the growth in connectivity will allow people in transit to use otherwise unproductive time.

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Once this increased communication and transportation mobility is implemented, new markets

will be created and established markets will expand at accelerated rates—which will increase

investments in economic development and create jobs.


To encourage the creation and growth of markets, the Airborne Internet Consortium must

identify and develop technologies that will scale. The commercial Internet’s success has not

only been due to its ability to increase communication mobility, it has also occured because of

its ability to scale exponentially. The Internet has been able to meet the demands placed on it

by not having a fixed network topology or architecture. For this reason, part of the AIC effort

will include modern network theory and principles so that the Airborne Internet will retain the

resilience of the commercial Internet and not fail to scale to events such as extraordinary traffic

volume, disruptive weather, or exponentional increases in user volume.

JPDO Partnership

The power of future networked system architectures to transform aviation will enable scalable

airspace and aircraft architectures, flexible ground infrastructures, and new approaches to safety

and security in the system of systems known as Aviation. To insure that the Airborne Internet

Consortium is aware of network theory developments in aviation, the AIC will maintain a close

working relationship with the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) .

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Chapter No Topic Page No.







1.4 Journal Papers(If present)




3.3 ---

3.4 ----





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[1) remove borders of Table 2) Contents can be modified according to requirement, only

concern is to maintain flow and to cover all topics of seminar]


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List of Figures

Figure No. Title of Figure Page No.

1.1 Conceptual block diagram of LAN 15


List of Table

Figure No. Title of Figure Page No.

1.4 Speedup performance readings 6



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The word on just about every Internet user's lips these days is "broadband." We have so much

more data to send and download today, including audio files, video files and photos, that it's

clogging our wimpy modems. Many Internet users are switching to cable modems and digital

subscriber lines (DSLs) to increase their bandwidth. There's also a new type of service being

developed that will take broadband into the air. In this paper, we'll learn about the future of the

Airborne Internet. We'll take a look at the networks in development, the aircraft and how

consumers may use this technology.

Land-based lines are limited physically in how much data they can deliver because of the

diameter of the cable or phone line. In an airborne Internet, there is no such physical limitation,

enabling a broader capacity.

The airborne Internet will function much like satellite-based Internet access, but without

the time delay. The airborne Internet will actually be used to compliment the satellite and

ground-based networks, not replace them. These airborne networks will overcome the last-mile

barriers facing conventional Internet access options.

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2.1 Airborne Internet

Also known simply as AI, the airborne Internet is a communication network that is designed to

include nodes or points of contact or interaction on different types of aircraft. First conceived in

1999, the idea of an Internet communications and delivery system that is air-based for use by

passengers and crew on airplanes has undergone some revisions over the years, especially as

technology continued to advance during the first decade of the 21st century. In additional to

consumer applications, the airborne Internet is also perceived as being a means of creating a

communications and information network that could be used in emergency situations or as part

of military strategies.

The idea behind the airborne Internet is to eliminate the need for any type of

communications infrastructure that is land-based. Instead, the equipment needed to create the

network would be installed in aircraft of different types, essentially making it possible to

maintain communications and information flow even if key facilities located on the ground

were rendered inoperable. At the same time, the air-based Internet would have full capability to

interact with land-based facilities when and as practical.

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2.2 Mission & Benefits

2.2.1 AIC Mission

The mission of the Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is to define, develop, and promote the

common system elements necessary to deploy comprehensive aviation-based digital datalink

capabilities throughout the nation using evolving Internet technologies.

2.2.2 Public and Private Benefits

The AIC intends to undertake its research through collaborations with the public sector in a

manner that will:

Enable a safer, more secure, more cost efficient global airspace system by eliminating

communications as a constraint on the economic viability of aviation related


Facilitate collaborative research and development in the field of aviation


Develop open systems architecture and standards for aviation digital communications

Foster and promote general purpose, multi-application, scalable data channel protocols

in aviation

Develop intellectual content to guide public and private investment in aviation digital


Promote international adoption of open systems architecture, standards, information

management structures, and protocols for aviation digital communications

Foster use of advanced aviation digital communications technology for public security

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3.1. Breaking the information barrier

In 1903, the Wright brothers made aviation history when they broke the chains of gravity

holding man to the earth. In 1947, Chuck Yeager ushered in a

new age of flight when he broke the sound barrier. In 1999,

Ralph Yost from the FAA Technical Center broke the

information barrier when he conceived of a system in which

aircraft would be connected with a scalable, general purpose,

and multi-application aviation data channel and treated as nodes in a network. The Airborne

Internet Consortium (AIC) is helping to advocate this concept, which is known as the Airborne


3.2 The beginning

In July of 1999, NASA Langley Research Center held a Small Aircraft Transportation System

(SATS) Planning Conference. SATS is an idea being developed by NASA in which small

aircraft and the nation's 5,000+ small airports will be utilized for public transportation.

In one of the conference sessions, it was envisioned that in order for SATS to be implemented,

a broadband radio would be required to connect the aircraft. It would carry all communications,

navigation, and surveillance (CNS) data over a single wide-

bandwidth channel—unlike the current approach where many

different radios and frequencies are used to provide CNS


During the session, Ralph Yost made an analogy between aircraft and devices on a

computer network. When the entire conference was briefed on the results of the session, Dr.

Bruce Holmes of NASA described the concept of a peer-to-peer aircraft network connected

with broadband radios as an “Airborne Internet”.

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3.3 The airborneinternet.com website

In 2002, Ralph Yost created a website containing Airborne Internet resources such as white

papers, briefings, and reports. The website also covered news and events relevant to the

development of the Airborne Internet. Many of the materials originally available on the

airborneinternet.com website are located in the Resources section of this website.

3.4 The AICG

In January 2003, representatives from government, universities, and industry held the first of

many Airborne Internet Collaboration Group (AICG) meetings. The AICG explored the

benefits of public and private sector collaboration on the development of a systems architecture

based on open standards and Internet protocols for aviation communications.

3.5 The CIE

During the AICG meetings, several members of the computer industry introduced the concept

of using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) XML Web Service protocols on the Airborne

Internet. The shared information space which would be created is known as the Collaborative

Information Environment (CIE).

3.6 The AIC

Companies that participated in the AICG formed the Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC),

which officially began operations in December 2004. If you are interested in becoming a

member, please see information on how to join the AIC.

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4.1 AIC Objectives:

Create Airborne Internet (AI) guiding principles

Create an Airborne Internet Operational Concept

Create and evaluate Airborne Internet "system of systems" architectures

Influence, tailor, or create standards for the Airborne Internet

Demonstrate the capability of an Airborne Internet

4.2 AIC Outputs:

Research Studies – All research reports are copyrighted and treated as shared

datarights among Principal members:

o National Airborne Internet operations concept

Standards and Guidelines Reports – All standards and guidelines reports prepared for

release into the public domain:

o National Airborne Internet standards

o Guidelines for Airborne Internet product certification

Standards Setting Liaison – All ongoing standards liaison services provided to

members as long as necessary to achieve the targeted goals for influencing and/or

creating standards:

o Standards liaison working groups

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5.1 Legal Vehicle

The Airborne Internet Consortium (AIC) is a Delaware non-profit corporation chartered to

undertake science, research, and education activities. The AIC is registered as a tax-exempt

501(c)3 organization.

5.2 Governance Structure

The AIC governance structure consists of a founding board of three members for one year, to

be expanded to a seven member board of directors elected from among the membership.

Directors are elected only from among the Principal members of any given class.

5.3 Timeline of Activities

The Airborne Internet Consortium will startup and operate in three phases. The phases

approach is designed to match the timing and availability of support from various sources:

Phase 1 – Startup over a period of one year after the financial and legal commitment of


Phase 2 – Definition of concepts at sufficient level to fully secure resources for

complete research

Phase 3 – Full research resulting in standards and certification guidelines

5.4 Operating Budget:

Phase 1 – Startup:

o Research – $300,000 goal

o Management and Operations – $85,000 minimum to $115,000 maximum

Phase 2 – Definition of concepts:

o Research – $2,500,000 goal

o Management and Operations – $215,500 to $245,000

Phase 3 – Full research:

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o Research – $26,500,000 goal

o Management and Operations – $1,850,000 to $2,275,000

5.5 Resources Strategy

The AIC’s research and project management functions will be supported by a combination of

member contributions and the solicitation of government (Federal and state) program funding.

The Consortium’s business management will be supported by member dues and cost recovery

on project overhead.

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5.6 Works of Airborne Internet

The concept seems pretty simple, have a plane flying over head in a pattern carrying long range

4g transmitters, transmitting internet across the city. Looking into the trigonometry in this, it

could potentially cover an area of up to 30-40 miles. I ran some numbers, and to have 2

Beechcraft Barons flying so that one was always in the air, it would cost $5,000 a day roughly.

If you had 5,000 customers, paying $30 a month for high-speed internet from this service, then

doesn't this business venture sound like it has potential?

A used aircraft would cost around $250,000 and around $50,000 to outfit it with the

transmitters roughly, meaning the total cost would be around $300,000 to cover a city (50 mile

radius) with this, currently, cell phone towers cost 150,000 to 200,000 and in cities, only cover

a few miles. Doesn't this seem plausible?

This plane would fly a few miles over the Earth, which is about how far away some cell

towers are from consumers, and there would be air between the plane and the receiver, not

buildings and walls, extending the range.

In order for consumers to pick up on the signal, a home base station would be used that

could power an antenna to provide high upload and download speeds.

The aircraft would essentially be a "wireless router" in the sky, transmitting all of the data

to a base station that has a backbone connection to the internet.

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The airborne Internet won't be completely wireless. There will be ground-based components to any type of airborne Internet network.

The consumers will have to install an antenna on their home or business in order to receive signals from the network hub overhead.

The networks will also work with established Internet Service Providers (ISPs), who will provide their high-capacity terminals for use by the network.

These ISPs have a fiber point of presence -- their fiber optics is already set up. What the airborne Internet will do is provide an infrastructure that can reach areas that don't have broadband cables and wires.

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7.1 Three companies are planning to provide Airborne Internet by placing aircrafts in fixed

patterns over hundreds of cities.

7.1.1 Angel Technologies

Angel Technologies Corporation, with headquarters in St. Louis, Mo., is a privately-held

wireless communications company using proprietary High Altitude Long Operation (HALO™)

aircraft to deliver services worldwide. Augmenting terrestrial towers and orbiting satellites,

Angel's HALO aircraft will fly fixed patterns in the stratosphere above major cities to deliver

metropolitan wireless services at lower cost, with increased flexibility and improved quality of


7.1.2 Sky Station International

Sky Station International has pioneered technology that utilizes a solar powered lighter-than-air

platform held geostationary in the stratosphere to provide high capacity wireless

telecommunications services to large metropolitan regions. Worldwide regulatory approval for

the use of stratospheric platforms was granted by the ITU inNovember 1997 and by the U.S.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) earlier that year.

7.1.3 Aero Vironment With NASA

AeroVironment Inc is a technology company in Monrovia, California, and Simi

Valley, California, that is primarily involved in energy systems, electric vehicle systems, and

unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Paul B. MacCready, Jr., a famous designer of human

powered aircraft, founded the company in 1971. The company is probably most well-known for

developing a series of lightweight human-powered and then solarpowered vehicles.

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7.2 Application Airborne Internet (A.I.) is an approach to provide a general purpose, multi-application

data channel to aviation. In doing so, A.I. has the potential to provide significant cost

savings for aircraft operators and the FAA, as it allows the consolidation of many

functions into a common data channel. A primary application for A.I. is to track aircraft

for the air traffic control system. Many other applications can utilize the same A.I. data

channel. The applications available are only limited by the bandwidth available.

A.I. began as a supporting technology for NASA’s Small Aircraft Transportation

System (SATS). But there is no reason that A.I. should be limited to SATS-class

aircraft. All of aviation, and even transportation, has the potential to benefit from A.I.

The principle behind the A.I. is to establish a robust, reliable, and available digital data

channel to aircraft. Establishing the general purpose, multi-application digital data

channel connection to the aircraft is analogous to the connection of a desktop computer

to its local area network, or even the wide area network we call the Internet. But aircraft

are mobile objects. Therefore, mobile routing is required to maintain the data channel

connectivity while the aircraft moves from region to region.

The desktop computer, whether used in the office or the home, runs many different

applications that can all use the same data channel. The applications are designed

around the Internet Protocol (IP) standard to take advantage of the existence of the

network connection to the computer. Airborne Internet is built upon the same model.

A.I. will provide a general purpose, multi-application data channel that numerous

applications can use. By combining application and data functionality over a common

data channel, aviation has the potential to significantly reduce costs for equipage on the

ground and in the aircraft.

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8.1 Architecture defines the structural and collaborative relationships of system components.

Often described using views (e.g., functional, component, implementation, temporal, user), the

architecture provides information to guide system and software developers during initial

development and inevitable system improvement activities. In addition to defining the

functional and physical relationships between system components, an architecture often

provides design guidance in an attempt to achieve other desirable objectives such as efficient

resource utilization, incremental development, verifiability, use of COTS products, ease of

maintenance, and system extensibility.

8.2 Developing a SATS Airborne Internet architecture consists of the following steps:

1)       Understand the SATS operational concepts

2)       Define system level requirements

3)       Investigate and evaluate the external environment

4)       Identify trends and issues that must be addressed

5)       Apply modern system design techniques, i.e., design patterns to identify key design


6)       Document the result and submit for review

8.2.1 Understand the SATS operational concepts – Everyone tends to relate to SATS in a

unique way. It is more a new way of thinking about air transportation than a technical concept

that beckons to be explored. This leads to a variety of definitions of what SATS is – or should

be. To bound the AI architecture problem, we developed a set of system operation


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Samplings of these key assumptions are listed below:

         Pilot – Until such time as highly automated systems can be fully tested and certified,

SATS aircraft will have at least one qualified, instrument rated pilot on board. Because

of the level of automation on board, the SATS system will enable this pilot to be much

more proficient and able to fly in nearly all weather conditions into a large number of

minimally equipped airports.

         Airspace – SATS aircraft will share airspace with non-SATS aircraft. This implies a

minimum level of system compatibility and equipage in both SATS and non-SATS

aircraft. SATS aircraft en route will operate in Class A airspace, SATS aircraft landing

at small/medium sized airports will operate in Class C, D, or E airspace.

         Avionics – in addition to the minimum set of avionics required of normal IFR1[2]

aircraft, SATS aircraft will have on board additional avionics equipment to enable the

pilot to operate in near all-weather situations. If SATS is to be prototyped in 2005 and

operational in 2025, this equipment will need to be compatible with systems used by

commercial and general aviation airports to not require expensive new ground support

systems not currently planned by the FAA.

         Flight rules – to meet its objectives, SATS aircraft will need to be able to access small

and medium sized airports. These same airports currently support VFR2[3] traffic in

addition to IFR traffic. Flight rules will have to be modified to support a mixture of

IFR, VFR and SATS traffic.

8.2.2 Define system level requirements – Specific, verifiable requirements for a SATS

communications system must be developed. The communications system is unique in that it is

both an end system and an enabling infrastructure. As an end system it must provide pilot-

controller, pilot-pilot, and pilot-flight operations communications. As an enabling


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infrastructure it must support applications associated with navigation, surveillance, and other


Requirements need to be developed in the traditional areas of communication, navigation, and

surveillance, including both avionics and ground infrastructure, consistent with the

infrastructure defined in the task below. System level requirements also need to be developed

for onboard flight management and sensor/actuator systems capable of providing the level of

support necessary to achieve the SATS goal of two crew performance with a single crew

member. Other requirements will include support for passenger support systems

8.2.3 Investigate and evaluate the external environment – SATS, although a revolutionary

transportation concept will have to work within the National Airspace System (NAS). This is

true both during SATS prototyping in 2005 and during full-scale development, in 2025. The

NAS itself is evolving necessitating developing an understanding of the capabilities of NAS

over time. This can be very tricky as the NAS is subject to many forces that are political, not

technical, and as such is difficult to predict. For example, there are currently three competing

communication technologies to provide aircraft-aircraft position reporting. Clearly, there is

agreement that position reporting is desirable, but which technological approach will survive is

like trying to choose between VHS and Betamax before the marketplace has spoken.

Identify trends and issues that must be addressed – To be successful, SATS must function

within the context of technology evolution and systems development. We present a summary

of some of the trends and issues in the next section of this paper.

8.2.4 Apply modern system design techniques – SATS presents an ideal opportunity to apply

object-oriented design techniques for the collection, analysis and documentation of system

architecture. Elements of the resulting design include:

         Design patterns to identify key components of the design

         Layers of abstraction to minimize coupling of user level functionality to implementation


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         Exploitation of natural cohesiveness, common software functional patterns

         Communications protocols between major functional objects

8.2.5 Document the result and submit for review – Peer review is a vital step in the

development of an architecture for a system as complex and safety critical as a new aircraft

transportation system.

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Thus this airborne internet technology has a wide range of utilities in the field of aviation

services like aircraft monitoring and air traffic management, weather information etc., and also

provides an opportunity for the passengers to access the internet at very high altitudes that is, in

the aero-planes and other conventional services.

This new technology, has already begun creating splashes in the industry.

With the advent of Airborne Internet the remote sections of the world may get into main frame


However, the technology still has to undergo testing of potential network performance.

Facility to increase the antennas to control the traffic needs to be provided.

Economic feasibility of the project also needs a review. Thus it is a further new trend in this

mobile world which is establishing the connectivity by building network in the air.

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1. Paper Size : A- 4 size bond paper

2. Margins :

Top : 1” (1 inch=2.54cm)

Bottom : 1.15” (2.86cm)

Left : 1.5”

Right : 0.6”

3. Line Spacing : 1.5 line

4. Title of Chapter

Font : Times New Roman ( Bold face)

Size : 14 point

Alignment : Right Alignment

One thick line ( 2¼ point weight) after the name of chapter.

5. Headings

First Order Heading : ( for example – 1. INTRODUCTION)

Font : Times New Roman (Bold Face)

Size : 12 point

One blank line before the heading. (12 points)

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Second Order Heading : (for example – 1.1. Evolution)

Font : Times New Roman ( Bold Face)

Size : 12 point

One blank line before the heading. (12 points)

6. Text

Font : Times New Roman

Size : 12 point

Line Indent : First line of every paragraph should be indented

by 1 cm. ( Except first paragraph *)

* No indent should be applied to first line of first paragraph under any

Heading / Sub-Heading

Alignment : Justified ( Full Text)

7. Abstract ( upto 150 words)

Heading (i.e. ABSTRACT)

Font : Times New Roman (Bold Face)

Size : 16 point

Two blank lines after the heading. (12 points)

Remaining Text

Font : Times New Roman ( Italic Face )

Size : 14 point

Alignment : Justified ( Full Text)

8. Figures and Tables : Centered Placed

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Font : Garamond (Bold)

Size : 12 point

Alignment : Centered

9. Page Numbering ( Centered)

Till page, “ FIGURE INDEX” : Roman ( I, II, …etc. )

For Remaining Pages

(i.e. from ABSTRACT -to- BIBLIOGRAPHY) : 1, 2, …… N

10. References / Bibliography

Line Spacing : 1.5 Line

Font : Times New Roman

Size : 14 point

Publication details & URL must be in Italics

Format :

[citation number] Author’s Name, “ Article Title”, Journal, Publisher,

Location, Year , Edition/Reprint, PP Page No. Start-


[citation number] Author’s Name, “Article Title”, Complete URL of Web


[citation number] Author’s Name, “Title of the Book”, Publication,

Edition, Year of Printing.

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Note :

1. Seminar Report must be spiral bind.

2. One copy of the report should be submitted to the college. One Copy

to the respective guide is optional. Every student may have his or her

own additional copy.

3. Report must be written in your own English language.

4. Abstract should be ½ to ¾ page

5. Report must be submitted at the time of presentation (Two copies).

6. “Cover Page, First Page, Specimen Copy“are only for students

instruction, they are not be printed in the report.

7. Sequence of pages to be followed as:

Total report of 30 pages to 40 pages in which 25 to 35 pages will be actual

content ( for example if total 30 page report , 25 pages will be actual content)